Once your doctor determines the stage of your prostate cancer, he can start mapping out a treatment plan. Stage is based on:
- The size of your tumor
- How far it has spread
- The chances of it coming back
Matching the right treatment with your stage isn’t always cut and dry. You might benefit from a combo of a few different approaches. Together, you and your doctor will decide on the best treatment.
There are three different doctors who might be involved in your care:
- A medical oncologist, who treats cancer
- A radiation oncologist, who also treats cancer
- A urologist, who specializes in problems with the urinary tract and male reproductive organs
Here are the stages of prostate cancer along with common treatment options.
In this stage, your PSA levels and Gleason scores are low, and that's good. When they're higher, your cancer is more aggressive. It’s also more likely to come back and require more intensive treatment.
The PSA (prostate-specific antigen) test measures levels of this protein in your blood. Your doctor then determines your Gleason score by looking at prostate tissue cells under a microscope.
With stage I, you should consider the following treatment approaches:
- Active surveillance. Your doctor tracks your PSA levels. If those levels rise, it might mean your cancer is growing or spreading. Your doctor can then change your treatment. He might also do tests like rectal exams and ultrasounds.
- Watchful waiting. This involves fewer tests than active surveillance. Your doctor keeps a close watch on your symptoms. If you're an older man, or you have other serious health problems, your doctor might opt for this method.
- Radiation therapy. This kills prostate cancer cells or keeps them from growing and dividing. There are two types of this treatment. The "external" kind uses a machine to aim a beam of radiation at your tumor. With "internal radiation," a doctor places radioactive pellets or seeds in or next to the tumor -- this procedure is also known as brachytherapy.
- Radical prostatectomy. This is a surgery to remove your prostate and some of the surrounding tissue.
- Ablation therapy. This treatment uses freezing or high-intensity ultrasound to kill cancer cells.
The cancer is much larger, but it hasn’t spread outside your prostate. Your PSA levels and Gleason scores are also higher. Surgery or radiation is often needed to keep it from spreading.
With stage II, you should consider the following treatments:
- Active surveillance. In this stage, it’s typically used if you're a much older man or you have other serious health problems.
- Radiation therapy, possibly combined with hormone therapy. Those are drugs that stop testosterone from helping your cancer cells grow.
- Radical prostatectomy
The cancer has spread beyond your prostate, but it hasn't reached your bladder, rectum, lymph nodes, or nearby organs.
With stage III, you should consider the following treatments:
- External radiation plus hormone therapy
- External radiation plus brachytherapy and possible hormone therapy
- Radical prostatectomy, often combined with removal of your pelvic lymph nodes. Your doctor might recommend radiation after surgery.
This happens when your cancer has spread to the bladder, rectum, lymph nodes, organs, or bones. Cases of stage IV are rarely cured. Still, treatments can extend your life and ease your pain.
In this stage, you should consider the following treatments:
- Hormone therapy, which is often combined with surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy
- Surgery to relieve symptoms such as bleeding or urinary obstruction and to remove cancerous lymph nodes
- External radiation with or without hormone therapy
- Chemotherapy, if standard treatments don’t relieve symptoms and the cancer continues to grow. The drugs will shrink cancer cells and slow their growth.
- Bisphosphonate drugs, which can help slow the growth of cancer in the bone and help prevent fractures
- The vaccine sipuleucel-T (Provenge), which boosts your immune system so it will attack the cancer cells. This might be used when hormone therapy doesn’t work.
- Palliative care, which offers you relief from symptoms like pain and trouble peeing
Clinical trials are testing new treatments. They can give you state-of-the-art cancer treatments or newer ones that aren’t available yet. Ask your doctor if a clinical trial might be right for you.
If Your Prostate Cancer Comes Back
If your cancer goes into remission but later returns, follow-up treatments will depend on where the cancer is located and which treatments you’ve already tried.
- If the cancer is contained in your prostate, surgery or a second attempt at radiation is suggested. If you've had a radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy is a good option. If you had radiation, radical prostatectomy might be the best approach. Cryosurgery might also be an option.
- If the cancer has spread to other parts of your body, hormone therapy might be the most effective treatment. External or IV radiation therapy or bisphosphonate drugs can relieve your bone pain.