APOAEQUORIN

OTHER NAME(S):

Prevagen.

Overview

Overview Information

Apoaequorin is a protein that comes from a specific type of jellyfish that glows. When apoaequorin is exposed to calcium, the protein and calcium bind and a blue light is produced. For more than 40 years, apoaequorin has been used in a laboratory setting to study how calcium works inside cells. Recently apoaequorin has been manufactured on a larger scale for use in the dietary supplement Prevagen.

People take apoaequorin to prevent the decline in memory and thinking skills that occurs normally with age and to improve memory, but there is no good scientific evidence to support its use for these or other conditions.

There has been some concern about false advertising claims made by Quincy Bioscience, the makers of Prevagen. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent government agency that works to promote fair trade competition and protect and educate consumers. In 2017, the FTC filed a complaint against the makers of Prevagen for false advertising claims. In 2020, a separate class action lawsuit against the company that makes Prevagen was settled. The company agreed to partially reimburse people who had purchased the product and to change the claims made on the product label.

How does it work?

Apoaequorin is a protein that was originally discovered in the jellyfish species Aequorea victoria. When apoaequorin binds with calcium, a blue light is produced.

Problems with calcium regulation in the human brain are thought to play a role in age-related mental decline. Because apoaequorin has a similar structure to human calcium-binding proteins, some researchers believe it might help regulate calcium in the brain and reduce memory loss and mental decline.
Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Decline in memory and thinking skills that occurs normally with age. Early research shows that taking 10 mg of apoaequorin daily doesn't seem to improve verbal learning and only slightly improves memory in older adults.
  • Lou Gehrig's disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS).
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of apoaequorin for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Apoaequorin is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken appropriately. A 10 mg dose of a specific apoaequorin product (Prevagen, Quincy Bioscience) has been used safely for up to 90 days. But it's unclear what side effects apoaequorin might cause. Some of the side effects most commonly reported to the manufacturer are headache, dizziness, and nausea. Other less common events include memory problems, difficulty sleeping, and anxiety. There have also been a small number of reports of more serious potential side effects such as heart and nervous system-related events. But there isn't enough information about these potential side effects to know if apoaequorin was the actual cause of these side effects.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if apoaequorin is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for APOAEQUORIN Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of apoaequorin depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for apoaequorin (in children/in adults). Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Apoaequorin. Prevagen web site. Available at: https://www.prevagen.com/about-improve-memory/apoaequorin/. Accessed July 29, 2015.
  • GRAS Notice (GRN) No. 568. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Web site. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/NoticeInventory/UCM457034.pdf. Accessed September 28, 2015.
  • Moran DL, Marone PA, Bauter MR, Soni MG. Safety assessment of Apoaequorin, a protein preparation: Subchronic toxicity study in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2013;57:1-10. View abstract.
  • Moran DL, Tetteh AO, Goodman RE, Underwood MY. Safety assessment of the calcium-binding protein, apoaequorin, expressed by Escherichia coli. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2014;69(2):243-9. View abstract.
  • Payne AG. Experimental regimen targeting the ependyma slows disease progression in four patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Med Hypotheses 2009;72(5):548-50. View abstract.
  • Prevagen Quality of Life Study. Impact of Prevagen on memory. Quincy Bioscience 2009. Available at: https://prevagenpro.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/PRV_Memorystudy_packet.pdf. Accessed July 29, 2015.
  • Prevagen Quality of Life Study. Impact of Prevagen on sleep quality. Quincy Bioscience 2009. Available at: https://prevagenpro.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/PRV_Sleepstudy_packet.pdf. Accessed July 29, 2015.
  • Prevagen. Prevagen web site. Available at: https://www.prevagen.com/. Accessed July 29, 2015.
  • Products. Prevagen Professional web site. Available at: https://prevagenpro.com/practitioners/about/. Accessed July 29, 2015.
  • Underwood MY, Sivesind PA, Gabourie TA, Lerner KC. The effects of the calcium binding protein apoaequorin on memory and cognitive functioning in older adults. Quincy Bioscience 2014:1-15. Available at: https://prevagenpro.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/effects-of-cabp-apoaequorin-memory-coginitive-function-older-adults.pdf. Accessed July 29, 2015.
  • GRAS Notice (GRN) No. 568. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Web site. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/NoticeInventory/UCM457034.pdf. Accessed September 28, 2015.
  • Juan Collins and John Fowler v. Quincy Bioscience LLC. Case 19-22864-Civ-COOKE/GOODMAN (United States District Court Southern District of Florida Miami Division 2020).
  • Moran DL, Marone PA, Bauter MR, Soni MG. Safety assessment of Apoaequorin, a protein preparation: Subchronic toxicity study in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2013;57:1-10. View abstract.
  • Moran DL, Tetteh AO, Goodman RE, Underwood MY. Safety assessment of the calcium-binding protein, apoaequorin, expressed by Escherichia coli. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2014;69(2):243-9. View abstract.
  • Moran DL, Underwood MY, Gabourie TA, Lerner KC. Effects of a supplement containing apoaequorin on verbal learning in older adults in the community. Adv Mind Body Med. 2016;30(1):4-11. View abstract.
  • Payne AG. Experimental regimen targeting the ependyma slows disease progression in four patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Med Hypotheses 2009;72(5):548-50. View abstract.
  • Prevagen Quality of Life Study. Impact of Prevagen on memory. Quincy Bioscience 2009. Available at: https://prevagenpro.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/PRV_Memorystudy_packet.pdf. Accessed July 29, 2015.
  • Prevagen Quality of Life Study. Impact of Prevagen on sleep quality. Quincy Bioscience 2009. Available at: https://prevagenpro.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/PRV_Sleepstudy_packet.pdf. Accessed July 29, 2015.
  • Underwood MY, Sivesind PA, Gabourie TA, Lerner KC. The effects of the calcium binding protein apoaequorin on memory and cognitive functioning in older adults. Quincy Bioscience 2014:1-15. Available at: https://prevagenpro.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/effects-of-cabp-apoaequorin-memory-coginitive-function-older-adults.pdf. Accessed July 29, 2015.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

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