to dark yellow
Abnormal: Many foods and
medicines can affect the color of the urine. Urine with no color may be caused
by long-term kidney disease or uncontrolled
diabetes. Dark yellow urine can be caused by
dehydration. Red urine can be caused by blood in the
Abnormal: Cloudy urine can
be caused by pus (white blood cells), blood (red blood cells), sperm, bacteria, yeast, crystals, mucus, or a
parasite infection, such as
Normal: Slightly "nutty"
Abnormal: Some foods (such
as asparagus), vitamins, and antibiotics (such as penicillin) can cause urine
to have a different odor. A sweet, fruity odor may be caused by uncontrolled
urinary tract infection (UTI) can cause a bad odor.
Urine that smells like maple syrup can mean maple syrup urine disease, when the
body can't break down certain
Abnormal: A very high
specific gravity means very concentrated urine, which may be caused by not
drinking enough fluid, loss of too much fluid (excessive vomiting, sweating, or
diarrhea), or substances (such as sugar or protein) in the urine. Very low
specific gravity means dilute urine, which may be caused by drinking too much
fluid, severe kidney disease, or the use of
Abnormal: Some foods (such
as citrus fruit and dairy products) and medicines (such as antacids) can affect
pH. A high (alkaline) pH can be caused by severe
vomiting, a kidney disease, some urinary tract infections, and
asthma. A low (acidic) pH may be caused by severe lung
disease (emphysema), uncontrolled diabetes, aspirin overdose,
severe diarrhea, dehydration, starvation, drinking too much alcohol, or
drinking antifreeze (ethylene glycol).
Abnormal: Protein in the
urine may mean that kidney damage, an infection, cancer,
high blood pressure, diabetes,
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or
glomerulonephritis is present.
in the urine may also mean that
leukemia, poison (lead or mercury poisoning), or
preeclampsia (if you are pregnant) is
Normal: 1–15 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or 60–830 micromoles per liter (mcmol/L) in a 24-hour sample.1
A one-time urine collection, if normal, will be negative for glucose.1
Intravenous (IV) fluids can cause glucose to be in the
urine. Too much glucose in the urine may be caused by uncontrolled diabetes, an
adrenal gland problem, liver damage, brain injury,
certain types of poisoning, and some types of kidney diseases. Healthy pregnant
women can have glucose in their urine, which is normal during
Abnormal: Ketones in the
urine can mean uncontrolled diabetes, a very low-carbohydrate diet, starvation
or eating disorders (such as
anorexia nervosa or
bulimia), alcoholism, or poisoning from drinking
rubbing alcohol (isopropanol). Ketones are often found in the urine when a
person does not eat (fasts) for 18 hours or longer. This may occur when a
person is sick and cannot eat or vomits for several days. Low levels of ketones
are sometimes found in the urine of healthy pregnant women.
Normal: Very few or no red
or white blood cells or casts are seen. No bacteria, yeast cells, parasites, or
squamous cells are present. A few crystals are normally seen.
Red blood cells in
the urine may be caused by kidney or bladder injury,
kidney stones, a urinary tract infection (UTI),
inflammation of the kidneys (glomerulonephritis), a kidney or
bladder tumor, or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). White blood cells (pus)
in the urine may be caused by a urinary tract infection, bladder tumor,
inflammation of the kidneys, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or
inflammation in the vagina or under the foreskin of the penis.
Depending on the type, casts can mean inflammation or damage to the tiny
tubes in the kidneys, poor blood supply to the kidneys, metal poisoning (such
as lead or mercury),
heart failure, or a
Large amounts of
crystals, or certain types of crystals, can mean kidney stones, damaged
kidneys, or problems with
metabolism. Some medicines and some types of urinary
tract infections can also increase the number of crystals in urine.
Bacteria in the urine mean a urinary tract infection (UTI). Yeast cells
or parasites (such as the parasite that causes trichomoniasis) can mean an
infection of the urinary tract.
The presence of
squamous cells may mean that the sample is not as pure
as it needs to be. These cells do not mean there is a medical problem, but your
doctor may ask that you give another urine sample.
Normal: 800–2,500 milliliters (mL) per 24 hours.1