Other substances that may be checked during a urine test include:
Bilirubin. This is a substance formed by the breakdown of red blood cells. It is passed from the body in stool. Bilirubin is not found in urine. If it is present, it often means that the liver is damaged or that the flow of bile from the gallbladder is blocked. To learn more, see the topic Bilirubin.
Urobilinogen. This is a substance formed by the breakdown of bilirubin. It is also passed from the body in stool. Only small amounts of urobilinogen are found in urine. Urobilinogen in urine can be a sign of liver disease (cirrhosis, hepatitis) or that the flow of bile from the gallbladder is blocked.
Bence Jones protein. This is an abnormal protein found in the urine of about 50% of people with a rare type of cancer called multiple myeloma. A urine test is often done when multiple myeloma is suspected. The protein test done during a regular urine test does not check for Bence Jones protein.
To lower the chance of contaminating the urine sample with bacteria, a health professional may collect a urine sample by using a urinary catheter. A catheter may be used to collect urine from a person in the hospital who is very ill or who can't give a clean-catch sample. Using a catheter allows a clean sample to be collected.