Medication therapy is an important component of treating ADHD. There are many types of drugs that can be used to control symptoms of ADHD.
ADHD medications are available in short-acting (immediate-release), intermediate-acting, and long-acting forms. It may take some time for a doctor to find the most effective drug, dosage, and schedule for someone with ADHD.
The symptoms of ADHD include inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. These are traits that most children display at some point or another. But to establish a diagnosis of ADHD, sometimes referred to as ADD, the symptoms should be inappropriate for the child's age.
Adults also can have ADHD; in fact, up to half of adults diagnosed with the disorder had it as children. When ADHD persists into adulthood, symptoms may vary. For instance, an adult may experience restlessness instead of hyperactivity...
A class of drugs called psychostimulants or stimulants have been used to effectively treat ADHD for several decades. These medicines help those with ADHD to focus their thoughts and ignore distractions. Stimulant medications are effective in 70% to 80% of patients.
Stimulants are used to treat both moderate and severe ADHD. They may be helpful in children, adolescents, and adults who are having difficulty with ADHD symptoms at school or at work, as well as at home. Some stimulants are approved for use in children over age 3, while others are approved for children over age 6.
Note that only some of these stimulants, like Adderall XR, Concerta, Vyvanse, Quillivant XR, and Focalin XR, are FDA-approved for use in adults.
Nonstimulant Drugs Approved to Treat ADHD
In cases where stimulants don’t work or cause unpleasant side effects, nonstimulants might help. The first nonstimulant medication approved by the FDA was Strattera. It's now used in children, adolescents, and adults. The FDA then approved a second nonstimulant drug, Intuniv, for children and teens between ages 6 and 17 and recently approved the non-stimulant Kapvay for use alone or in combination with a stimulant to enhance effectiveness. These medications can all improve concentration and impulse control.
What Other Medications Are Used to Treat ADHD?
When stimulants and nonstimulants are not effective or well-tolerated or when certain conditions are present, several other medications are available to treat ADHD. These medications include: