Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition that affects children and adolescents and can continue into adulthood for some.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) estimates that 3% to 5% of children have ADHD. Some experts, though, say ADHD may occurs in 8% to 10% of school-aged children. Some experts also question whether kids really outgrow ADHD. What that means is that this disorder may be more common in adults than previously thought.
Children with ADHD...
When executive function breaks down, behavior becomes poorly controlled. This can affect a person's ability to:
work or go to school
maintain appropriate social relationships
Types of Executive Function
Executive function can be divided into two categories:
Organization involves gathering information and structuring it for evaluation. Regulation involves taking stock of the environment and changing behavior in response to it.
For example, seeing a piece of chocolate cake on the dessert cart at a restaurant may be tempting. But that's where executive function can step in.
It will help remind you that based on your experience and prior knowledge, the supersized portion is likely to contain hundreds of calories. And your executive function would also remind you that eating the cake conflicts with goals like eating less sugar and losing weight.
Disorders of Executive Function
A person can be born with a shortfall in executive functioning. Executive function may also be impaired by damage to the brain's prefrontal cortex.
Executive function problems are associated with a number of psychiatric and development disorders. These include:
Problems with executive function can run in families. They may become most apparent during a child's grade school years, when they interfere with the ability to start and complete schoolwork on time.
The good news is that the brain continues to develop well into adulthood. A person's executive functions are shaped by physical changes but also by ongoing experiences. Early attention to problems with executive functioning can help children outgrow and compensate for weaknesses.
Warning signs that a child may be having difficulty with executive function include trouble in:
estimating how much time a project will take to complete
telling stories (verbally or in writing)
initiating activities or tasks
retaining information while doing something with it (for example, remembering a phone number while dialing)
Diagnosing Problems With Executive Function
Executive function involves a set of interrelated skills. So there's no single test to identify trouble. Instead psychologists, teachers, speech-language pathologists, and therapists rely on different tests to measure specific skills.
Problems identified by individual tests can't predict how well adults or children will function in complex, real-world situations. Sometimes, careful observation and trial teaching are more valuable ways of identifying and improving weak executive function.