Kindness Is Contagious
Teach Your Children Well
In part, this movement is a reaction to a long tradition within
the psychological sciences of concentrating on what's wrong with an individual
rather than what's right. That tradition has contributed to a tendency to
attribute all human behavior to dark or dishonest motives, and given an
excessive focus on mental disease and illness, at the expense of attention to
mental health and happiness, Haidt and others say.
"Funding [for research] has been almost entirely for
disease prevention," Haidt says. "There's lots of money for mental
illness, but not for mental health. Positive psychology doesn't say that's
wrong, just unbalanced. Even a little bit of research [on mental health] would
have huge payoffs."
Psychologist Christopher Peterson, PhD, of the University of
"Psychologists know a lot about stress and trauma," he
says. "Why don't we know as much about what makes life worth
Warming the Heart
Haidt's interest in the elevating effects of witnessing good
deeds grew out of earlier research on something quite different: the phenomenon
That work led him to define disgust as a reaction to seeing
other people move downward on what he calls a "scale of cognitions."
And the thought occurred to him: What happens when you witness people moving up
on that scale, performing noble and generous acts?
"I had never read anything about this in any psychology
article, so I decided to study it for myself," Haidt says.
In a book chapter called "Flourishing: The Positive Person
and the Good Life" -- to be published later this year by the American
Psychological Association -- Haidt outlines a scientific approach to
understanding elevation, and some preliminary efforts to describe and measure
In that chapter, Haidt describes a simple study in which he
asked college students to recall and write about times when they saw a
"manifestation of humanity's higher or better nature." As a comparison,
students were also asked to think of something that produced happiness --
specifically, to recall a time when they were "making good progress toward
a goal" -- but did not produce elevation.
In a second study, elevation was induced in subjects by showing
them 10-minute video clips: one about the life of Mother Teresa; one comedy
video; and one emotionally neutral but interesting documentary.
In both studies, Haidt says, participants reported different
patterns of physical feelings and motivations during the elevated thoughts.
"Elevated participants were more likely to report physical feelings in
their chests, especially warm, pleasant, or tingling feelings, and they were
more likely to report wanting to help others, to become better people
themselves, and to affiliate with others," Haidt writes in the forthcoming