Epidural anesthesia has become a popular and effective form of
childbirth pain relief. Epidural anesthesia is the injection of a numbing medicine into the space around the spinal nerves in the lower back. It numbs the area below the point of injection and allows you to remain awake during the delivery. It can be used for either a vaginal birth or a
cesarean delivery (C-section). A doctor trained in the
use of anesthesia (anesthesiologist) administers epidural anesthesia.
How an epidural is given
Epidural anesthesia involves the insertion of a sterile guide needle
and a small tube (epidural catheter) into the space between the spinal cord and
outer membrane of the spinal cord (epidural space). The epidural catheter is
placed at or below the waist. The doctor first uses a local anesthetic to numb
the area where the needle will be inserted. Then the guide needle is inserted
and removed, while the catheter remains in place. The catheter is taped in
place up the center of your back with the end taped in place on top of your
See pictures of
epidural placement and area of numbness for childbirth .
An anesthetic medicine is injected into the catheter to numb your
body below the insertion site. The amount of discomfort or pain that you have
depends on the amount of anesthetic used. Less anesthetic (often called a
light epidural) will allow you to be more active in your
labor and feel enough to push effectively. With higher levels of anesthetic,
you will feel little or no pain from your contractions. You may be required to
remain in bed when an epidural is used. You will also have a tube placed in a
vein (intravenous, or IV tube) and a fetal monitor.
Before delivery, the epidural medicine dose can be decreased so
that you can push more effectively while remaining alert and relatively
comfortable. The epidural catheter can also be used to numb the area between
the vagina and anus (perineum) just before delivery.
Because the amount of medicine given at one time is small, epidural
anesthesia wears off during labor unless additional medicine is given.
So the use of epidural infusion pumps has become more common. With an
infusion pump, the epidural medicine is given continuously in small amounts
so that you don't have to worry that the pain relief will wear off during your
In addition to more constant pain relief, another benefit of having
an infusion pump is that it allows you to have more control of your belly
and leg muscles. It also reduces the chance of side effects related to a
The most common side effect from epidural anesthesia is lowering of
the mother's blood pressure. Less common side effects may include severe
headache after delivery, difficulty urinating or walking after delivery, fever,
and prolonged labor. A rare side effect is seizure.
Because a standard epidural can decrease your ability to push, a
forceps delivery or cesarean delivery (C-section) may
sometimes be needed. Using less anesthesia (called a light epidural) may
reduce the likelihood of needing a cesarean delivery.