Children and adults with
cerebral palsy may have problems using the toilet if
their hip joints are stiff or if they have problems walking. Some do not have
good control over their bladder muscles. This may result in bed-wetting,
leaking urine continuously throughout the day, or wetting during specific
An occupational therapist can teach a person with cerebral palsy
exercises to help control the bladder. Special undergarments to protect
clothing are also useful. Surgery, biofeedback, and medicines are other
ways to treat bladder control problems.
Selected classes of chemotherapy, including the vinca alkaloids, vincristine, and vinblastine, can cause direct neurotoxicity. Additionally, drugs such as thalidomide and lenalidomide are associated with peripheral neuropathies that can affect the face and jaw. Deep-seated, throbbing mandibular pain can occur. Because this symptom is also consistent with acute dental pulpal disease, it is important that a thorough history and oral physical examination be performed when oral pain is present; radiographs...