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    Breast Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Breast Cancer

    1. Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

    2. Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Breast Cancer

      Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast.The breast is made up of lobes and ducts. Each breast has 15 to 20 sections called lobes, which have many smaller sections called lobules. Lobules end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are linked by thin tubes called ducts.Anatomy of the female breast. The nipple and areola are shown on the outside of the breast. The lymph nodes, lobes, lobules, ducts, and other parts of the inside of the breast are also shown.Each breast also contains blood vessels and lymph vessels. The lymph vessels carry an almost colorless fluid called lymph. Lymph vessels lead to organs called lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small bean-shaped structures that are found throughout the body. They filter substances in lymph and help fight infection and disease. Clusters of lymph nodes are found near the breast in the axilla (under the arm), above the collarbone, and in the chest.See

    3. Breast Cancer Screening - General Information About Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy

      Breast cancer is the most common cancer in pregnant and postpartum women,occurring in about 1 in 3,000 pregnant women. The average patient is between 32 to 38 years of age and,with many women choosing to delay childbearing,it is likely that the incidence of breast cancer during pregnancy will increase. Breast cancer pathology is similar in age-matched pregnant and nonpregnant women. Hormone ...

    4. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Stage

      Stage I, Stage II, Stage IIIA, and Operable Stage IIIC Breast CancerTreatment of stage I, stage II, stage IIIA, and operable stage IIIC breast cancer may include the following:Breast-conserving surgery to remove only the cancer and some surrounding breast tissue, followed by lymph node dissection and radiation therapy.Modified radical mastectomy with or without breast reconstruction surgery.Sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by surgery.Adjuvant therapy (treatment given after surgery to lower the risk that cancer will come back) may include the following: Radiation therapy to the lymph nodes near the breast and to the chest wall after a modified radical mastectomy.Chemotherapy with or without hormone therapy.Hormone therapy.Monoclonal antibody therapy with trastuzumab combined with chemotherapy.A clinical trial of new targeted therapies.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I breast cancer, stage II breast

    5. Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence

      BackgroundBreast cancer incidence and mortalityBreast cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer in U.S. women, with an estimated 64,640 cases of in situ disease, 232,340 new cases of invasive disease, and 39,620 deaths expected in 2013.[1] Thus, fewer than 1 of 6 women diagnosed with breast cancer die of the disease. By comparison, about 72,220 American women are estimated to die of lung cancer in 2013. Males account for 1% of breast cancer cases and breast cancer deaths (refer to the Special Populations section of this summary for more information).Widespread adoption of screening increases breast cancer incidence in a given population and changes the characteristics of cancers detected, with increased incidence of lower-risk cancers, premalignant lesions, and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). (Refer to the Ductal Carcinoma In Situ section in the Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Pathology section of this summary for more information.) Ecologic studies from the United States [2] and

    6. Breast Cancer Screening - Breast Cancer Screening Modalities—Beyond Mammography

      Clinical Breast ExaminationNo randomized trials of clinical breast examination (CBE) as a sole screening modality have yet been reported. The Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) compared high-quality CBE plus mammography to CBE alone in women aged 50 to 59 years (refer to the Clinical Breast Examination section in the Overview section of this summary for more information). CBE, lasting 5 to 10 minutes per breast, was conducted by trained health professionals, with periodic evaluations of performance quality. The frequency of cancer diagnosis, stage, interval cancers, and breast cancer mortality were similar in the two groups and compared favorably with other trials of mammography alone, perhaps because of the careful training and supervision of the health professionals performing CBE.[1] Breast cancer mortality with follow-up 11 to 16 years after entry (mean = 13 years) was similar in the two screening arms (mortality rate ratio, 1.02 [95% confidence interval

    7. Breast Cancer Screening - Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

      IntroductionDuctal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a noninvasive condition. DCIS can progress to become invasive cancer, but estimates of the likelihood of this vary widely. Some people include DCIS in breast cancer statistics. The frequency of the diagnosis of DCIS has increased markedly in the United States since the widespread use of screening mammography. In 1998, DCIS accounted for about 18% of all newly diagnosed invasive plus noninvasive breast tumors in the United States. Very few cases of DCIS present as a palpable mass; 80% are diagnosed by mammography alone.[1] DCIS comprises a heterogeneous group of histopathologic lesions that have been classified into several subtypes based primarily on architectural pattern: micropapillary, papillary, solid, cribriform, and comedo. Comedo-type DCIS consists of cells that appear cytologically malignant, with the presence of high-grade nuclei, pleomorphism, and abundant central luminal necrosis. Comedo-type DCIS appears to be more aggressive,

    8. Breast Cancer Screening - General Information about Male Breast Cancer

      Male breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Breast cancer may occur in men. Men at any age may develop breast cancer,but it is usually detected (found) in men between 60 and 70 years of age. Male breast cancer makes up less than 1% of all cases of breast cancer. The following types of breast cancer are found in men: Infiltrating ductal .

    9. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

      There are different types of treatment for patients with breast cancer.Different types of treatment are available for patients with breast cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Six types of standard treatment are used:Surgery Most patients with breast cancer have surgery to remove the cancer from the breast. Some of the lymph nodes under the arm are usually taken out and looked at under a microscope to see if they contain cancer cells.Breast-conserving surgery, an operation to

    10. Breast Cancer Screening - Changes to This Summary (10 / 02 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.High-Penetrance Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility GenesAdded text about a study of 746 Hispanic patients with a personal or family history of breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer who were examined for the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Deleterious BRCA mutations were identified in 25% of the patients, and a possible founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del) was identified (cited Weitzel et al. as reference 67). Also added text about a population-based cohort of 492 Hispanic women with breast cancer that suggested that the BRCA1 ex9-12 deletion may be a Mexican founder mutation and may represent 10% to 12% of all BRCA1 mutations in similar clinic- and population-based cohorts in the United States. This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Cancer Genetics Editorial Board,

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