Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.)
Stage 0 bladder cancer is defined by the following TNM classifications:
Ta, N0, M0
Tis, N0, M0
Patients with stage 0 bladder tumors can be cured by a variety of treatments,...