Stage I Bladder Cancer
Standard treatment options:
- TUR with fulguration.[17,18]
- TUR with fulguration followed by intravesical BCG.[6,8,10,11,14]
- TUR with fulguration followed by intravesical chemotherapy.[3,14]
- Segmental cystectomy (rarely indicated).
- Radical cystectomy in selected patients with extensive or refractory superficial tumor.
- Interstitial implantation of radioisotopes with or without external-beam radiation therapy.[20,21]
Treatment options under clinical evaluation:
- Use of chemoprevention agents after treatment to prevent recurrence.
- Intravesical therapies.
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I bladder cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
- Holm�ng S, Hedelin H, Anderstr�m C, et al.: The relationship among multiple recurrences, progression and prognosis of patients with stages Ta and T1 transitional cell cancer of the bladder followed for at least 20 years. J Urol 153 (6): 1823-6; discussion 1826-7, 1995.
- Smits G, Schaafsma E, Kiemeney L, et al.: Microstaging of pT1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: identification of subgroups with distinct risks of progression. Urology 52 (6): 1009-13; discussion 1013-4, 1998.
- Igawa M, Urakami S, Shirakawa H, et al.: Intravesical instillation of epirubicin: effect on tumour recurrence in patients with dysplastic epithelium after transurethral resection of superficial bladder tumour. Br J Urol 77 (3): 358-62, 1996.
- Lacombe L, Dalbagni G, Zhang ZF, et al.: Overexpression of p53 protein in a high-risk population of patients with superficial bladder cancer before and after bacillus Calmette-Gu�rin therapy: correlation to clinical outcome. J Clin Oncol 14 (10): 2646-52, 1996.
- Herr HW: The value of a second transurethral resection in evaluating patients with bladder tumors. J Urol 162 (1): 74-6, 1999.
- Herr HW, Schwalb DM, Zhang ZF, et al.: Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Gu�rin therapy prevents tumor progression and death from superficial bladder cancer: ten-year follow-up of a prospective randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 13 (6): 1404-8, 1995.
- Lamm DL, Griffith JG: Intravesical therapy: does it affect the natural history of superficial bladder cancer? Semin Urol 10 (1): 39-44, 1992.
- Sarosdy MF, Lamm DL: Long-term results of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for superficial bladder cancer. J Urol 142 (3): 719-22, 1989.
- Coplen DE, Marcus MD, Myers JA, et al.: Long-term followup of patients treated with 1 or 2, 6-week courses of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin: analysis of possible predictors of response free of tumor. J Urol 144 (3): 652-7, 1990.
- Catalona WJ, Hudson MA, Gillen DP, et al.: Risks and benefits of repeated courses of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for superficial bladder cancer. J Urol 137 (2): 220-4, 1987.
- Herr HW: Progression of stage T1 bladder tumors after intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin. J Urol 145 (1): 40-3; discussion 43-4, 1991.
- Lamm DL, Blumenstein BA, Crawford ED, et al.: A randomized trial of intravesical doxorubicin and immunotherapy with bacille Calmette-Gu�rin for transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder. N Engl J Med 325 (17): 1205-9, 1991.
- Lamm DL, Crawford ED, Blumenstein B, et al.: Maintenance BCG immunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer: a randomized prospective Southwest Oncology Group study. [Abstract] Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 11: A-627, 203, 1992.
- Rintala E, Jauhiainen K, Kaasinen E, et al.: Alternating mitomycin C and bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillation prophylaxis for recurrent papillary (stages Ta to T1) superficial bladder cancer. Finnbladder Group. J Urol 156 (1): 56-9; discussion 59-60, 1996.
- Witjes JA, Caris CT, Mungan NA, et al.: Results of a randomized phase III trial of sequential intravesical therapy with mitomycin C and bacillus Calmette-Guerin versus mitomycin C alone in patients with superficial bladder cancer. J Urol 160 (5): 1668-71; discussion 1671-2, 1998.
- Malmstr�m PU, Wijkstr�m H, Lundholm C, et al.: 5-year followup of a randomized prospective study comparing mitomycin C and bacillus Calmette-Guerin in patients with superficial bladder carcinoma. Swedish-Norwegian Bladder Cancer Study Group. J Urol 161 (4): 1124-7, 1999.
- Soloway MS: The management of superficial bladder cancer. In: Javadpour N, ed.: Principles and Management of Urologic Cancer. 2nd ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams and Wilkins, 1983, pp 446-467.
- Herr HW, Reuter VE: Evaluation of new resectoscope loop for transurethral resection of bladder tumors. J Urol 159 (6): 2067-8, 1998.
- Amling CL, Thrasher JB, Frazier HA, et al.: Radical cystectomy for stages Ta, Tis and T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol 151 (1): 31-5; discussion 35-6, 1994.
- Goffinet DR, Schneider MJ, Glatstein EJ, et al.: Bladder cancer: results of radiation therapy in 384 patients. Radiology 117 (1): 149-53, 1975.
- van der Werf-Messing B, Hop WC: Carcinoma of the urinary bladder (category T1NxM0) treated either by radium implant or by transurethral resection only. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 7 (3): 299-303, 1981.
- Lamm DL, Riggs DR, Shriver JS, et al.: Megadose vitamins in bladder cancer: a double-blind clinical trial. J Urol 151 (1): 21-6, 1994.