Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Bladder Cancer
See the following PDQ summaries for more information:
- Screening for Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers
- Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Smoking can affect the risk of bladder cancer.
Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. Talk to your doctor if you think you may be at risk for bladder cancer. Risk factors for bladder cancer include:
- Using tobacco, especially smoking cigarettes.
- Being exposed to certain substances, such as soot from coal, or chemicals used to make rubber, certain dyes, or textiles.
- Working as a dry cleaner or in places where paper, rope, twine, or clothing is made.
- Taking Aristolochia fangchi, a Chinese herb.
- Drinking water that has high levels of arsenic.
- Having a history of bladder infections, including bladder infections caused by Schistosoma haematobium.
- Using urinary catheters for a long time.
- Having a history of kidney or bladder stones.
- Past treatment with certain anticancer drugs or radiation therapy to the pelvis.
- Having a kidney transplant.
- Having hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC; Lynch syndrome).
Possible signs of bladder cancer include blood in the urine or pain during urination.
These and other symptoms may be caused by bladder cancer. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following problems:
- Blood in the urine (slightly rusty to bright red in color).
- Frequent urination, or feeling the need to urinate without being able to do so.
- Pain during urination.
- Lower back pain.
Tests that examine the urine, vagina, or rectum are used to help detect (find) and diagnose bladder cancer.
The following tests and procedures may be used:
- Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
- Internal exam: An exam of the vagina and/or rectum. The doctor inserts gloved fingers into the vagina and/or rectum to feel for lumps.
- Urinalysis: A test to check the color of urine and its contents, such as sugar, protein, red blood cells, and white blood cells.
- Urine cytology: Examination of urine under a microscope to check for abnormal cells.
- Cystoscopy: A procedure to look inside the bladder and urethra to check for abnormal areas. A cystoscope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. A cystoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer.
Cystoscopy. A cystoscope (a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing) is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. Fluid is used to fill the bladder. The doctor looks at an image of the inner wall of the bladder on a computer monitor.
- Intravenous pyelogram (IVP): A series of x-rays of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder to find out if cancer is present in these organs. A contrast dye is injected into a vein. As the contrast dye moves through the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, x-rays are taken to see if there are any blockages.
- CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
- Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. A biopsy for bladder cancer is usually done during cystoscopy. It may be possible to remove the entire tumor during biopsy.