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Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Bladder Cancer


Related Summaries

Other PDQ summaries containing information related to bladder cancer include the following:

  • Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening
  • Unusual Cancers of Childhood (bladder cancer in children)


  1. American Cancer Society.: Cancer Facts and Figures 2013. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, 2013. Available online. Last accessed March 13, 2013.
  2. Hudson MA, Herr HW: Carcinoma in situ of the bladder. J Urol 153 (3 Pt 1): 564-72, 1995.
  3. Torti FM, Lum BL: The biology and treatment of superficial bladder cancer. J Clin Oncol 2 (5): 505-31, 1984.
  4. Lacombe L, Dalbagni G, Zhang ZF, et al.: Overexpression of p53 protein in a high-risk population of patients with superficial bladder cancer before and after bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy: correlation to clinical outcome. J Clin Oncol 14 (10): 2646-52, 1996.
  5. Stein JP, Grossfeld GD, Ginsberg DA, et al.: Prognostic markers in bladder cancer: a contemporary review of the literature. J Urol 160 (3 Pt 1): 645-59, 1998.
  6. Witjes JA, Caris CT, Mungan NA, et al.: Results of a randomized phase III trial of sequential intravesical therapy with mitomycin C and bacillus Calmette-Guerin versus mitomycin C alone in patients with superficial bladder cancer. J Urol 160 (5): 1668-71; discussion 1671-2, 1998.
  7. Quek ML, Stein JP, Nichols PW, et al.: Prognostic significance of lymphovascular invasion of bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy. J Urol 174 (1): 103-6, 2005.
  8. Thrasher JB, Crawford ED: Current management of invasive and metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol 149 (5): 957-72, 1993.
  9. Esrig D, Elmajian D, Groshen S, et al.: Accumulation of nuclear p53 and tumor progression in bladder cancer. N Engl J Med 331 (19): 1259-64, 1994.
  10. Lipponen PK: Over-expression of p53 nuclear oncoprotein in transitional-cell bladder cancer and its prognostic value. Int J Cancer 53 (3): 365-70, 1993.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
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