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Leukemia & Lymphoma

Medical Reference Related to Leukemia & Lymphoma

  1. Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Indolent, Stage I and Contiguous Stage II Adult Non-Hodgkin LymphomaTreatment of indolent, stage I and contiguous stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include the following:Radiation therapy directed at the area where cancer is found.Watchful waiting.Chemotherapy with radiation therapy.Radiation therapy directed at the area where cancer is found and nearby lymph nodes.Monoclonal antibody therapy with or without chemotherapy.Treatments used for more advanced disease, in patients who can't be treated with radiation therapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with indolent, stage I adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma and indolent, contiguous stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  2. Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    After adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the lymph system or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out the type of cancer and if cancer cells have spread within the lymph system or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage of the disease in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:Complete blood count (CBC) with differential: A procedure in which a sample of blood is drawn and checked for the following:The number of red blood cells and platelets.The number and type of white blood cells.The amount of hemoglobin (the protein that carries oxygen) in the red blood cells.The portion of the blood sample made up of red blood cells.Complete blood count (CBC). Blood is collected by inserting a needle into a vein and allowing the

  3. Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  4. Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment for Indolent, Recurrent Adult NHL

    In general, treatment with standard agents rarely produces a cure in patients whose disease has relapsed. Sustained remissions after relapse can often be obtained in patients with indolent lymphomas, but relapse will usually ensue. Favorable survival after relapse has been associated with an age younger than 60 years, complete remission rather than partial remission, and duration of response longer than 1 year. Even the most favorable subset, however, has a tenfold greater mortality compared with age-adjusted U.S. population rates.[1] Patients who experience a relapse with indolent lymphoma can often have their disease controlled with single agent or combination chemotherapy, rituximab (an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody), lenalidomide, radiolabeled anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, or palliative radiation therapy.[2,3] Long-term freedom from second relapse, however, is uncommon and multiple relapses will usually occur. Patients with indolent lymphoma may experience a relapse with a

  5. Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment for Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

    Lymphoblastic lymphoma is a very aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), which often occurs in young patients, but not exclusively. Lymphoblastic lymphoma is commonly associated with large mediastinal masses and has a high predilection for disseminating to bone marrow and the central nervous system (CNS). The treatment paradigms are based on trials for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) since lymphoblastic lymphoma and ALL are considered different manifestations of the same biologic disease. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment for more information.) Treatment is usually patterned after ALL. Intensive combination chemotherapy with CNS prophylaxis is the standard treatment of this aggressive histologic type of NHL. Radiation therapy is sometimes given to areas of bulky tumor masses. Since these forms of NHL tend to progress quickly, combination chemotherapy is instituted rapidly once the diagnosis has been confirmed.The most important aspects

  6. Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment for Diffuse, Small Noncleaved-Cell / Burkitt Lymphoma

    Diffuse, small, noncleaved-cell/Burkitt lymphoma typically involves younger patients and represents the most common type of pediatric NHL.[1]Standard Treatment Options for Diffuse, Small Noncleaved-Cell/Burkitt LymphomaStandard treatment options for diffuse, small, noncleaved-cell/Burkitt lymphoma include the following:Aggressive multidrug regimens.Central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis.Aggressive multidrug regimensStandard treatment for diffuse, small, noncleaved-cell/Burkitt lymphoma is usually with aggressive multidrug regimens similar to those used for the advanced-stage aggressive lymphomas (such as diffuse large cell).[2,3,4] In some institutions, treatment includes the use of consolidative bone marrow transplantation.[5,6] Adverse prognostic factors include bulky abdominal disease and high serum lactate dehydrogenase.Evidence (aggressive multidrug regimens):An intensive clinical trial (CLB-9251 [NCT00002494]) used aggressive combination chemotherapy patterned after that used

  7. Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Lymphoproliferative Disease Associated With Immunodeficiency in Children

    Regardless of the etiology of the immune defect, immunodeficient children with lymphoma have a worse prognosis than does the general population with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).[1,2,3,4] One potential exception is the more indolent low-grade lymphomas (e.g., mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue [MALT] lymphomas), which have developed in patients with common variable immunodeficiency or other immunodeficient states.[5,6] If the disease is localized and amenable to complete surgical resection and/or radiation therapy, the outcome is quite favorable; however, most NHL in this population is high-stage (stage III or IV) and requires systemic cytotoxic therapy. These patients usually tolerate cytotoxic therapy poorly, with increased morbidity and mortality due to increased infectious complications and often increased end-organ toxicities. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment for more information about MALT lymphomas.)In the era of highly active antiretroviral

  8. Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - High-Stage Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Treatment

    Patients with high-stage (stage III or IV) lymphoblastic lymphoma have long-term survival rates higher than 80%.[1] Unlike other pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), it has been shown that lymphoblastic lymphoma responds much better to leukemia therapy with 2 years of therapy than with shorter, intensive, pulsed chemotherapy regimens.[1,2,3]Involvement of the bone marrow may lead to confusion as to whether the patient has lymphoma or leukemia. Traditionally, patients with more than 25% marrow blasts are classified as having leukemia, and those with fewer than 25% marrow blasts are classified as having lymphoma. It is not yet clear whether these arbitrary definitions are biologically distinct or relevant for treatment design. All current therapies for advanced-stage lymphoblastic lymphoma have been derived from regimens designed for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Mediastinal radiation is not necessary for patients with mediastinal masses, except in the emergency

  9. Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Adult NHL

    Stage is important in selecting a treatment for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans are usually part of the staging evaluation for all lymphoma patients. The staging system is similar to the staging system used for Hodgkin lymphoma.Common among patients with NHL is involvement of the following:Noncontiguous lymph nodes.Waldeyer ring.Epitrochlear nodes.Gastrointestinal tract.Extranodal presentations. (A single extranodal site is occasionally the only site of involvement in patients with diffuse lymphoma.)Bone marrow.Liver (especially common in patients with low-grade lymphomas).Cytologic examination of cerebrospinal fluid may be positive in patients with aggressive NHL. Involvement of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes is less common than in Hodgkin lymphoma. Mediastinal adenopathy, however, is a prominent feature of lymphoblastic lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, entities primarily found in young

  10. Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your child's doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for your child.Low-stage Childhood Non-Hodgkin LymphomaTreatment of low-stage (stage I or II) non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents may include the following:Surgery followed by combination chemotherapy.Surgery and/or radiation therapy for anaplastic large cell lymphoma that affects the skin.A clinical trial of a new treatment.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I childhood large cell lymphoma, stage I childhood small noncleaved cell lymphoma, stage I childhood lymphoblastic lymphoma, stage I childhood anaplastic large cell lymphoma, stage II childhood large cell lymphoma, stage II childhood small noncleaved cell lymphoma, stage II childhood

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