Cancer of the pancreas barely makes the top 10 most common cancers in the U.S. However, pancreatic cancer's tendency to spread silently before diagnosis makes it the fourth deadliest cancer diagnosis, with more than 40,000 people expected to die of the disease in 2015.
The exocrine pancreas makes up 95% of the pancreas, so it's not surprising that most pancreatic cancers arise here.
Endocrine Pancreatic Cancer
Other cells of the pancreas make hormones that are released directly into the bloodstream (endocrine system). Cancerous tumors arising from these cells are called pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors or islet cell tumors.
Endocrine pancreatic cancers are uncommon, and are named according to the type of hormone produced:
Some pancreatic islet cell tumors do not secrete hormones and are known as non-secreting islet tumors of the pancreas.
Causes of Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer occurs when cells in the pancreas grow, divide, and spread uncontrollably, forming a malignant tumor. The exact cause of pancreatic cancer is unknown.
Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for pancreatic cancer: Smoking roughly doubles the risk for pancreatic cancer when compared to non-smokers. While diabetes is not a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, the two have been linked. Age, race, and family history are other risk factors for pancreatic cancer.