Among common cancers, pancreatic cancer has one of the poorest prognoses. Because pancreatic cancer often grows and spreads long before it causes any symptoms, only about 5% of patients are still alive five years after diagnosis.
For some pancreatic patients, however, a complex surgery known as the Whipple procedure may extend life and could be a potential cure. Those who undergo the Whipple procedure have a five-year survival rate of about 20%.
In about 46,000 people per year in the U.S., pancreatic cancer will arise, grow, and spread, often before it's ever discovered. As with many types of cancer, the causes of pancreatic cancer are mysterious. Although certain risk factors have been identified, the story is far from complete.
The classic Whipple procedure is named after Allen Whipple, MD, a Columbia University surgeon who was the first American to perform the operation in 1935. Also known as pancreaticoduodenectomy, the Whipple procedure involves removal of the "head" (wide part) of the pancreas next to the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). It also involves removal of the duodenum, a portion of the common bile duct, gallbladder, and sometimes part of the stomach. Afterwards, surgeons reconnect the remaining intestine, bile duct, and pancreas.
Who Is a Candidate for the Whipple Procedure?
Only about 20% of pancreatic cancer patients are eligible for the Whipple procedure and other surgeries. These are usually patients whose tumors are confined to the head of the pancreas and haven't spread into any nearby major blood vessels, the liver, lungs, or abdominal cavity. Intensive testing is usually necessary to identify possible candidates for the Whipple procedure.
Some patients may be eligible for a minimally invasive (laparoscopic) Whipple procedure, which is performed through several small incisions instead of a single large incision. Compared to the classic procedure, the laparoscopic procedure may result in less blood loss, a shorter hospital stay, a quicker recovery, and fewer complications.
The Whipple procedure isn't an option for the 40% of newly diagnosed patients whose tumors have spread (metastasized) beyond the pancreas. Only rarely is it an option for the 40% of patients with locally advanced disease that has spread to adjacent areas such as the superior mesenteric vein and artery, or for those whose tumors have spread to the body or tail of the pancreas.
Who Should Perform the Whipple Procedure?
The Whipple procedure can take several hours to perform and requires great surgical skill and experience. The area around the pancreas is complex and surgeons often encounter patients who have a variation in the arrangement of blood vessels and ducts.