What Is Diarrhea?
NIH; American College of Gastroenterology; KidsHealth; AudioJungle
Many people get diarrhea a few times a year. It normally lasts 2 to 3 days. Some people get it more often. It could be because they have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or other conditions.
What Causes Diarrhea?
Usually, diarrhea happens because of a virus that gets into your gut. Some people call it "intestinal flu" or "stomach flu."
Other causes include:
- Alcohol abuse
- Allergies to certain foods
- Diseases of the intestines (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis)
- Eating foods that upset the digestive system
- Infection by bacteria (the cause of most types of food poisoning) or other organisms
- Laxative abuse
- Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)
- Radiation therapy
- Running (Some people get “runner’s diarrhea” for reasons that aren’t clear.)
- Some cancers
- Surgery on your digestive system
- Trouble absorbing certain nutrients, also called “malabsorption”
Symptoms of Diarrhea
You may have:
- Bloating in your belly
- Thin or loose stools
- Watery stools
- An urgent feeling that you need to have a bowel movement
- Nausea and throwing up
More serious symptoms include:
If you have watery stools more than three times a day and you're not drinking enough fluids, you could become dehydrated. That can be a serious problem if it's not treated.
When Should I Call My Doctor?
Call your doctor right away if you have:
- Blood in your diarrhea or black, tarry stools
- A fever that is high (above 101 F) or that lasts more than 24 hours
- Diarrhea lasting longer than 2 days
- Nausea or throwing up that prevents you from drinking liquids to replace lost fluids
- Severe pain in your belly or rear end
- Diarrhea after coming back from a foreign country
Also, call your doctor right away if you have diarrhea and any of these signs of dehydration:
- Dark urine
- Smaller than usual amounts of urine or, in a child, fewer wet diapers than usual
- Rapid heart rate
- Dry skin
Your doctor will ask about your medical history and what medications you take, as well as what you’ve eaten or had to drink recently. They will give you a physical exam to look for signs of dehydration or belly pain.
Certain tests can help pinpoint the cause of your diarrhea, including:
- Blood tests to look for certain diseases or disorders
- Colonoscopy, in rare cases, in which your doctor looks inside your colon with a thin, flexible tube that holds a tiny camera and light. They can also use this device to take a small sample of tissue. Or your doctor might need to do only a sigmoidoscopy, which looks at just the lower colon.
- Stool tests to look for bacteria or parasites
Treatment for Diarrhea
You also need to stay hydrated. You should drink at least six 8-ounce glasses of fluids each day. Choose electrolyte replacement drinks or soda without caffeine. Chicken broth (without the fat), tea with honey, and sports drinks are also good choices. Instead of drinking liquids with your meals, drink liquids between meals. Sip small amounts of fluids often.
How Can I Feel Better?
Your rectal area may become sore because of all the bowel movements that diarrhea brings. You may have itching, burning, or pain when you go to the bathroom.
For relief, take a warm bath. Afterward, pat the area dry (don’t rub) with a clean, soft towel. You may also try using a hemorrhoid cream or petroleum jelly on the affected area.