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Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

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Stage II

In stage II, the cancer is removed by surgery and some cancer cells remain in the scrotum or cancer that can only be seen with a microscope has spread to the scrotum or spermatic cord. Tumor marker levels do not return to normal after surgery and may increase.

Stage III

In stage III, the cancer has spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen and is not completely removed by surgery. The cancer that remains after surgery can be seen without a microscope.

Stage IV

In stage IV, the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body such as the liver.

The following stages may be used for childhood ovarian germ cell tumors:

Stage I

In stage I, the cancer is in the ovary and can be completely removed by surgery.

Stage II

In stage II, one of the following is true:

  • The cancer is not completely removed by surgery. The remaining cancer can be seen with a microscope only.
  • The cancer has spread to the lymph nodes and can be seen with a microscope only.
  • The cancer has spread to the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary.

Stage III

In stage III, one of the following is true:

  • The cancer is not completely removed by surgery. The remaining cancer can be seen without a microscope.
  • The cancer has spread to lymph nodes and the lymph nodes are 2 centimeters or larger.
  • The cancer is found in fluid in the abdomen.

Stage IV

In stage IV, the cancer has spread to the lung, liver, brain, or bone.

Another staging system which may be used for childhood ovarian germ cell tumors is as follows:

Stage I

In stage I, cancer is found in one or both of the ovaries and has not spread. Stage I is divided into stage IA, stage IB, and stage IC.

  • Stage IA: Cancer is found in a single ovary.
  • Stage IB: Cancer is found in both ovaries.
  • Stage IC: Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and one of the following is true:
    • cancer is found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or
    • the capsule (outer covering) of the tumor has ruptured (broken open); or
    • cancer cells are found in fluid that has collected in the abdomen; or
    • cancer cells are found in washings of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen).

Stage II

In stage II, cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread into other areas of the pelvis. Stage II is divided into stage IIA, stage IIB, and stage IIC.

  • Stage IIA: Cancer has spread to the uterus and/or the fallopian tubes (the long slender tubes through which eggs pass from the ovaries to the uterus).
  • Stage IIB: Cancer has spread to other tissue within the pelvis such as the bladder, rectum, or vagina.
  • Stage IIC: Cancer has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes and/or other tissue within the pelvis and one of the following is true:
    • cancer is found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or
    • the capsule (outer covering) of the tumor has ruptured (broken open); or
    • cancer cells are found in fluid that has collected in the abdomen; or
    • cancer cells are found in washings of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen).
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WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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