Childhood craniopharyngiomas are benign brain tumors found near the pituitary gland.
Childhood craniopharyngiomas are rare tumors usually found near the pituitary gland (a pea-sized organ at the bottom of the brain that controls other glands) and the hypothalamus (a small cone-shaped organ connected to the pituitary gland by nerves).
Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (with cerebrospinal fluid shown in blue), and other parts of the brain.
Craniopharyngiomas are usually part solid mass and part fluid -filled cyst. They are benign (not cancer) and do not spread to distant parts of the brain or to other parts of the body. However, they may grow and press on parts of the brain or other nearby areas, including the pituitary gland, the optic chiasm, optic nerves, and fluid-filled spaces in the brain. Many functions including hormone making, growth, vision, and normal working of the brain may be affected. Benign brain tumors need treatment.
This summary discusses the treatment of primary brain tumors (tumors that begin in the brain). Treatment for metastatic brain tumors, which are tumors formed by cancer cells that begin in other parts of the body and spread to the brain, is not discussed in this summary. See the PDQ treatment summary on Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview for information about the different types of childhood brain and spinal cord tumors.
Brain tumors can occur in both children and adults; however, treatment for children may be different than treatment for adults. (See the PDQ summary on Adult Brain Tumors for more information.)
There are no known risk factors for childhood craniopharyngioma.
Craniopharyngiomas are rare in children younger than 2 years of age and are most often diagnosed in children aged 5 to 14 years. It is not known what causes these tumors to form.
Possible signs of childhood craniopharyngioma include vision changes and slow growth.
These and other symptoms may be caused by craniopharyngiomas. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. Check with your child's doctor if you see any of the following problems in your child:
- Headaches including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting.
- Vision changes.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Loss of balance or trouble walking.
- Increase in thirst or urination.
- Increase in head size (in infants).
- Unusual sleepiness or change in energy level.
- Unusual changes in personality or behavior.
- Short stature, slow growth, or delayed puberty.
- Hearing loss.