Note: A separate PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies is also available.
The cancer prevention summaries in PDQ refer to cancer prevention, defined as a reduction in the incidence of cancer. The PDQ includes summaries generally classified by histological type of cancer, especially when there are known risk factors for the specific types of cancer. This summary addresses a specific risk factor, tobacco use, which is associated with a large number of different cancers (and other chronic diseases) and unequivocally contains human carcinogens. The focus of this summary is on clinical interventions by health professionals that decrease the use of tobacco.
Acupuncture applies needles, heat, pressure, and other treatments to one or more places on the skin known as acupuncture points (see Question 1).
Acupuncture has been used in China and other Asian countries for thousands of years as part of traditional Chinese medicine (see Question 2).
Acupuncture has been used in the United States for about 200 years (see Question 2).
Acupuncture is used to treat many illnesses and ailments and in cancer patients is usually used to relieve pain...
Based on solid evidence, cigarette smoking causes cancers of the lung, oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, stomach, uterine cervix, and acute myeloid leukemia. Smoking avoidance and smoking cessation result in decreased incidence and mortality from cancer.
Description of the Evidence
Study Design: Evidence obtained from a randomized controlled trial.
Internal Validity: Good.
Magnitude of Effects on Health Outcomes: The relative risk (RR) of several cancers is much greater in cigarette smokers compared with nonsmokers (depending on the anatomical site of the cancer and the intensity and duration of smoking, the RR can range from twofold to tenfold or greater in smoking populations). A reduction of 15% is seen in the RR of all-cause mortality in heavy smokers subjected to intensive clinical cessation interventions.