Cerebral palsy is a group of problems that affect body movement and posture. It is related to a brain injury or to problems with brain development. It is one of the most common causes of lasting disability in children.
Cerebral palsy causes reflex movements that a person can't control and muscle tightness that may affect parts or all of the body. These problems can range from mild to severe. Intellectual disability, seizures, and vision and hearing problems can occur.
Cerebral palsy is caused by a brain injury or problem that occurs during pregnancy or birth or within the first 2 to 3 years of a child's life. It can be caused by:
- Problems from being born too early (premature birth).
- Not getting enough blood, oxygen, or other nutrients before or during birth.
- A serious head injury.
- A serious infection that can affect the brain, such as meningitis.
- Some problems passed from parent to child (genetic conditions) that affect brain development.
In many cases, the exact cause of cerebral palsy is not known.
Everyone with cerebral palsy has problems with body movement and posture. But the physical problems are worse for some people than for others.
Some people who have cerebral palsy have a slight limp or a hard time walking. Other people have little or no control over their arms and legs or other parts of the body, such as the mouth and tongue, which can cause problems with eating and speaking. People who have severe forms of cerebral palsy are more likely to have other problems, such as seizures or intellectual disability.
Babies with severe cerebral palsy often have problems with their posture. Their bodies may be either very floppy or very stiff. Birth defects sometimes occur along with cerebral palsy. Examples of birth defects include a spine that doesn't have the normal shape, a small jawbone, or a small head.
The brain injury or problem that causes cerebral palsy doesn't get worse over time. But new symptoms may appear, or symptoms may change or get worse as your child gets older. This is why some babies born with cerebral palsy don't show clear signs of it right away.