Meningococcal disease is an infection caused by a strain of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis. This invastive bacteria is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis in children aged 2 to 18 in the U.S.
Fortunately, meningococcal disease is preventable, and the key to prevention is the meningococcal vaccine. Here is information about the vaccine that you can use to help protect yourself and your family from meningococcal disease.
How Is Meningococcal Disease Spread and Who Is Most at Risk?
Meningococcal disease is not as contagious as other illnesses, such as a cold or the flu. But it is spread by contact with infected respiratory and throat secretions. That can happen with coughing, kissing, or sneezing.
Because the risk increases with close or prolonged contact with an infected person, family members in the same household and caregivers are at an increased risk. For the same reason, so are college students who live in dormitories.
Can the Meningococcal Vaccine Cause Meningococcal Disease?
The short answer is no. There are actually four meningococcal vaccines licensed in the U.S. Noneof the vaccines contains live bacteria.
The vaccines contain antigens -- substances that trigger the body's immune system and cause it to make antibodies. These antibodies then protect the body by attacking and killing the bacteria if it should invade your system.
The first vaccine -- meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine or MPSV4 -- was approved in 1978. It's made with the antigens contained in the outer polysaccharide or sugar capsule that surrounds the bacterium.
The meningococcal conjugate vaccine or MCV4 was approved in 2005. It uses antigens taken from the polysaccharide capsule and then bound to a separate protein that targets the body's immune cells. This makes it easier for the body's immune system to see and recognize the antigens.
One type of MCV4, Menveo, is licensed for use in people aged 2 to 55. Another version, Menactra, is approved for those 9 months to 55 years old. MPSV4 is the only vaccine licensed for use in people over 55 as well as people 2 to 55. Both vaccines protect against four types of meningococcal disease.
In 2015, two serogroup B vaccines were given approval and protect against the other two forms of meningococcal disease. MenB-FHpb or Trumenba was approved for a three dose schedule, while MenB-4C Bexsero is approved for two doses. Both vaccines have proven effective is protecting those aged 10-25, but have also been found to be useful for older patients.