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    Colorectal Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Colorectal Cancer

    1. Colorectal Cancer - Changes to This Summary (07 / 02 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.General Information About Rectal Cancer Updated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

    2. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - What is screening?

      Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early,it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear,cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain types of cancer. They also study the things we do and the ...

    3. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stage 0 Rectal Cancer

      Stage 0 rectal cancer is the most superficial of all rectal lesions and is limited to the mucosa without invasion of the lamina propria. Because of its superficial nature, surgical and other procedures may be limited. Standard treatment options:Local excision or simple polypectomy.[1]Full-thickness rectal resection by the transanal or transcoccygeal route for large lesions not amenable to local excision.Endocavitary radiation therapy.[2,3,4]Local radiation therapy.[2]Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 rectal cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.References: Bailey HR, Huval WV, Max E, et al.: Local excision of carcinoma of the rectum for cure. Surgery 111 (5): 555-61, 1992. Kodner IJ, Gilley MT, Shemesh EI, et al.: Radiation

    4. Colorectal Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - Evidence of Harms

      Harms are associated with the various modalities used to screen for colorectal cancer (CRC).Fecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT)A systematic review done through the Cochrane Collaboration examined all CRC screening randomized trials that involved FOBT on more than one occasion. The trials reported a low positive predictive value for the FOBT, suggesting that more than 80% of all positive tests were false-positives.[1] A positive test can lead to further diagnostic procedures that include colonoscopy or double-contrast barium enema plus flexible sigmoidoscopy.SigmoidoscopySigmoidoscopy can be an uncomfortable or painful procedure. Women may have more pain during the procedure, which may discourage them from returning for future screening sigmoidoscopies. Sigmoidoscopy can also cause perforation and bleeding, although this is rare.ColonoscopyClinically significant complications requiring medical intervention are rare but can include the following: perforations, bleeding, cardiovascular

    5. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062726-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Rectal Cancer Treatment

    6. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

      If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

    7. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Rectal Cancer

      Recurrent rectal cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the rectum or in other parts of the body, such as the colon, pelvis, liver, or lungs.

    8. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Colon Cancer

      Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)Treatment of stage 0 (carcinoma in situ) may include the following types of surgery:Local excision or simple polypectomy.Resection and anastomosis. This is done when the tumor is too large to remove by local excision.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 colon cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Stage I Colon CancerTreatment of stage I colon cancer usually includes the following:Resection and anastomosis.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I colon cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the

    9. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Summary of Evidence

      Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Prevention of Colorectal Cancer; Colon Cancer Treatment; and Rectal Cancer Treatment are also available. Based on solid evidence,screening for colorectal cancer reduces colorectal cancer mortality,but there is little evidence that it reduces all cause mortality,possibly because of an observed increase in other causes of death. Table 1: Effect of Screening ...

    10. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I Rectal Cancer

      Stage I tumors extend beneath the mucosa into the submucosa (T1) or into, but not through, the bowel muscle wall (T2). Because of its localized nature at presentation, stage I has a high cure rate. Treatment options:Wide surgical resection and anastomosis when an adequate low-anterior resection (LAR) can be performed with sufficient distal rectum to allow a conventional anastomosis or coloanal anastomosis.Wide surgical resection with abdominoperineal resection (APR) for lesions too distal to permit LAR.Local transanal or other resection [1,2] with or without perioperative external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) plus fluorouracil (5-FU).There are three potential options for surgical resection in stage I rectal cancer: local excision, LAR, and APR. Local excision should be restricted to tumors confined to the rectal wall and that do not, on rectal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, involve the full thickness of the rectum (i.e., not a T3 tumor). The ideal candidate for local

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