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Colorectal Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Colorectal Cancer

  1. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage III Rectal Cancer

    Treatment options:Preoperative chemoradiation with fluorouracil (5-FU) for patients with clinically staged T3 or T4 rectal adenocarcinoma.Total mesorectal excision (TME) with either low anterior resection (LAR) or abdominoperineal resection (APR).Postoperative chemoradiation for patients with stage II or III rectal cancer who did not receive preoperative chemoradiation.Four to six months of 5-FU-based chemotherapy postoperatively.A clinical trial.Prior to the standard use of preoperative chemoradiation for stage II and III rectal cancer, several studies established the benefits of adjuvant combined-modality therapy for surgical stage II and III disease. Intergroup protocol 86-47-51 (MAYO-864751) demonstrated a 10% improvement in overall survival (OS) with the use of continuous-infusion 5-FU (225 mg/m2 /day throughout the course of radiation therapy) compared with bolus 5-FU (500 mg/m2 /day for 3 consecutive days during the first and fifth weeks of radiation).[1][Level of evidence:

  2. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - What is prevention?

    Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer.

  3. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Rectal Cancer

    Treatment decisions should be made with reference to the TNM classification system,[1] rather than the older Dukes or the Modified Astler-Coller classification schema. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and a National Cancer Institute-sponsored panel recommended that at least 12 lymph nodes be examined in patients with colon and rectal cancer to confirm the absence of nodal involvement by the tumor.[2,3,4] This recommendation takes into consideration that the number of lymph nodes examined is a reflection of both the aggressiveness of lymphovascular mesenteric dissection at the time of surgical resection and the pathologic identification of nodes in the specimen. Retrospective studies, such as Intergroup trial INT-0089 [EST-2288], have demonstrated that the number of lymph nodes examined in colon and rectal surgery may be associated with patient outcome.[5,6,7,8]The staging system does not apply to the following histologies:Sarcoma. (See the

  4. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Colon Cancer

    Histologic types of colon cancer include the following:Adenocarcinoma (most colon cancers).Mucinous (colloid) adenocarcinoma.Signet ring adenocarcinoma.Scirrhous tumors.Neuroendocrine.[1] Tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation typically have a poorer prognosis than pure adenocarcinoma variants.References: Saclarides TJ, Szeluga D, Staren ED: Neuroendocrine cancers of the colon and rectum. Results of a ten-year experience. Dis Colon Rectum 37 (7): 635-42, 1994.

  5. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of colon cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which

  6. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000258008-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Colorectal Cancer Screening

  7. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with rectal cancer.Different types of treatment are available for patients with rectal cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Four types of standard treatment are used:SurgerySurgery is the most common treatment for all stages of rectal cancer. The cancer is removed using one of the following types of surgery:Polypectomy: If the cancer is found in a polyp (a small piece of bulging tissue), the polyp is often removed during a

  8. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062753-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Colorectal Cancer Screening

  9. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage II Colon Cancer Treatment

    Standard Treatment Options for Stage II Colon CancerSurgeryStandard treatment options for stage II colon cancer include the following:Wide surgical resection and anastomosis.Evidence (laparoscopic techniques):The role of laparoscopic techniques [1,2,3,4] in the treatment of colon cancer was examined in a multicenter, prospective, randomized trial (NCCTG-934653, now closed) comparing laparoscopic-assisted colectomy (LAC) to open colectomy.Three-year recurrence rates and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were similar in the two groups. (Refer to the Primary Surgical Therapy section in the Treatment Option Overview section of this summary for more information.)The quality-of-life component of this trial has been published and minimal short-term quality-of-life benefits with LAC were reported.[4][Level of evidence: 1iiC]Treatment Options Under Clinical EvaluationAdjuvant chemotherapyThe potential value of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage II colon cancer remains

  10. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

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