The legend goes like this: British Royal Air Force pilots, after eating bilberry jam for tea, bombed the enemy during WWII with devastating accuracy, their night vision heightened by the powers of the inky blue fruit.
That story has never been confirmed -- and research hasn't turned up conclusive evidence of bilberry's ability to help you see in the dark.
Each war leaves its own brand of trauma on soldiers.
Amputation was the most common surgery during the American Civil War. World War I brought mustard gas and an epidemic of scarred lungs.
For veterans returning from war in Iraq and Afghanistan, vision problems caused by traumatic brain injury are a growing concern. These veterans have better body armor than soldiers in the past, but they are more likely to be severely shaken by a blast from a homemade explosive device.
About 16% of soldiers...
Still, the dainty blue berry (Vaccinium myrtillus) continues to be an object of affection among scientists for its abundance of anthocyanosides, chemical compounds that have powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
And consumers still flock to bilberry extract, an enduring top-seller among herbal supplements, for its purported benefits to eye health.
"We've got this really sexy story, that it's good for night vision, but there's no evidence," says Evangeline Lausier, MD, clinical director of Duke Integrative Medicine, part of Duke University Health System in Durham, N.C. But because of the anthocyanosides in the fruit, "there are probably effects that make it part of a good diet.''
WebMD went hunting for the truth -- or lack thereof -- behind the claims for bilberry's healthfulness. Here's what we learned:
What Is a Bilberry?
The bilberry, a relative of the cranberry, huckleberry, and American blueberry, is a plant with bright green leaves and bell-shaped flowers that grows wild, primarily in northern Europe.
The bilberry looks very much like a blueberry, but its flesh is darker -- somewhere between deep purple and crimson -- and its flavor is tarter, says Steve Foster, a plant photographer who has written or co-written 17field and reference guides on medicinal plants and herbs, most recently National Geographic's Guide to Medicinal Herbs.
The depth of color of the bilberry's flesh is caused by those anthocyanosides -- also found in dark berries to varying degrees. The fruit also has antimicrobial tannins, which are found in purple grapes and dark teas.
In the 18th century, German doctors prescribed the bilberry for intestinal conditions, among other things. In the 20th century (1987), Commission E, the German panel of experts that assesses the safety and effectiveness of herbs, approved the use of bilberry extract for diarrhea and inflammation of the mouth or throat.