For most people, breaking, losing, or misplacing their glasses is an annoying inconvenience. But for Christiaan Rollich, who was severely nearsighted, not wearing glasses or contacts meant not seeing at all.
"My vision was so bad the army wouldn't accept me," says Rollich, who grew up in the Netherlands and moved to the U.S. 15 years ago. "If I took out my contacts, I wouldn't be able identify anybody in the room, no matter how close they were."
Each war leaves its own brand of trauma on soldiers.
Amputation was the most common surgery during the American Civil War. World War I brought mustard gas and an epidemic of scarred lungs.
For veterans returning from war in Iraq and Afghanistan, vision problems caused by traumatic brain injury are a growing concern. These veterans have better body armor than soldiers in the past, but they are more likely to be severely shaken by a blast from a homemade explosive device.
About 16% of soldiers...
Fortunately for Rollich, implanted contact lenses can now help people who have moderate to severe nearsightedness, or myopia. Called phakic intraocular lenses (IOL), these lenses are surgically implanted in the eye in front of the natural lens. They work by bending light rays onto the retina to form a clear image. Studies have found that IOL surgery is as safe as LASIK, which cuts the cornea to change its focusing power.
"It's the best money I ever spent," says Rollich. "Now I have pilot vision -- 20/15. I can do anything I want now. I surf, I do Thai boxing. It's really amazing."
2 Types of Implantable Lenses
There are two types of phakic implantable lenses available in the U.S. Studies show that both types are safe and work equally well to correct vision, but they do have different risks.
Note: Vision error is measured in diopters. The greater the number, the more correction needed.
The Verisyse Phakic Intraocular Lens (IOL) is made of plastic, and is attached in front of the iris. It's designed for people aged 21 years or older who have stable vision with a change in refraction of less than 0.5 diopters in six months. You are a candidate for this lens if your nearsightedness ranges from -5 diopters to -20 diopters.
The Visian Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL) is made of collamer, a substance that occurs naturally in the body, and is implanted behind the iris in front of the natural lens of the eye. It's designed for people aged 21 to 45 years who have stable vision with a change in refraction of less than 0.5 diopters in one year. You are a candidate for this lens if you have either: