Carotid artery disease is also called carotid artery stenosis. The term refers to the narrowing of the carotid arteries. This narrowing is usually caused by the buildup of fatty substances and cholesterol deposits, called plaque. Carotid artery occlusion refers to complete blockage of the artery. When the carotid arteries are obstructed, you are at an increased risk for a stroke, the third leading cause of death in the U.S.
Evaluate the effectiveness of medical or surgical treatments
What Are the Types of Echocardiograms?
There are several types of echocardiograms. Your doctor will help determine which is best for you.
Transthoracic echocardiogram: This is the standard echocardiogram. It is a painless test similar to X-ray, but without the radiation. The procedure uses the same technology used to evaluate a baby's health before birth. A hand-held device called a transducer is placed on the chest and transmits high frequency sound waves (ultrasound). These sound waves bounce off the heart structures, producing images and sounds that can be used by the doctor to detect heart damage and disease.
Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE): This test requires that the transducer be inserted down the throat into the esophagus (the swallowing tube that connects the mouth to the stomach). Because the esophagus is located close to the heart, clear images of the heart structures can be obtained without the interference of the lungs and chest.
Stress echocardiogram: This is an echocardiogram that is performed while the person exercises on a treadmill or stationary bicycle. This test can be used to visualize the motion of the heart's walls and pumping action when the heart is stressed. It may reveal a lack of blood flow that isn't always apparent on other heart tests. The echocardiogram is performed just prior and just after the exercise.
Dobutamine stress echocardiogram: This is another form of stress echocardiogram. However, instead of exercising to stress the heart, the stress is obtained by giving a drug that stimulates the heart and makes it "think" it is exercising. The test is used to evaluate your heart and valve function when you are unable to exercise on a treadmill or stationary bike. It is also used to determine how well your heart tolerates activity and your likelihood of having coronary artery disease (blocked arteries), and evaluates the effectiveness of your cardiac treatment plan.
Intravascular ultrasound: This is an ultrasound performed during cardiac catheterization. During this procedure, the transducer is threaded into the heart blood vessels via a catheter in the groin. It is often used to provide detailed information about the atherosclerosis (blockage) inside the blood vessels.
How Should I Prepare for the Echocardiogram?
On the day of the echocardiogram, eat and drink as you normally would. Take all of your medications at the usual times, as prescribed by your doctor.
What Happens During the Echocardiogram?
During an echocardiogram, you will be given a hospital gown to wear. You will be asked to remove your clothing from the waist up. A cardiac sonographer will place three electrodes (small, flat, sticky patches) on your chest. The electrodes are attached to an electrocardiograph monitor (ECG or EKG) that charts your heart's electrical activity.