WebMD explains laryngopharyngeal reflux, sometimes called ''silent reflux,'' which causes backup of stomach acid into the throat and larynx and is common in infants. Learn more about its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.
The abdomen and chest are separated by a sheetlike muscle called the diaphragm. The esophagus passes through an opening (the hiatus) in the diaphragm to connect to the stomach. A hiatal hernia occurs when part of the stomach bulges out of the abdomen,through the hiatus,and into the chest. When this happens,the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) may move above the diaphragm. Normally,...
During fundoplication surgery, the upper curve of the stomach (the fundus) is wrapped around the esophagus and sewn into place so that the lower portion of the esophagus passes through a small tunnel of stomach muscle.
Laparoscopy (say lap-uh-ROSS-kuh-pee) is surgery that is done through small cuts (incisions) in your belly. To do this type of surgery, a doctor puts a lighted tube, or scope, and other surgical tools through small incisions in your belly. The doctor can take out organs such as the spleen, the gallbladder, the appendix, an ovary, a fallopian tube, or part of the intestine during laparoscopy. He or she can repair a hernia or take out small tumors, cysts, or other growths. The doctor also can use laparoscopy to close a woman's fallopian tubes (tubal ligation). In laparoscopy, recovery is usually less painful and faster than in surgery done through one large cut (called open surgery). You may also spend less time in the hospital and away from work and other activities.Laparoscopy may cost less than open surgery. But sometimes laparoscopy takes longer, or your doctor needs to switch from doing a laparoscopy to doing an open surgery. Typically laparoscopy leaves several scars about half an