High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is the most common cardiovascular disease.
Blood pressure refers to the force of blood pushing against artery walls as it courses through the body. Like air in a tire or water in a hose, blood fills arteries to a certain capacity. Just as too much air pressure can damage a tire or too much water pushing through a garden hose can damage the hose, high blood pressure can threaten healthy arteries and lead to life-threatening conditions such as heart...
Normal BP - Systolic less than 120 mm Hg; diastolic less than 80 mm Hg
Prehypertension - Systolic 120-139 or diastolic 80-89 mm Hg
Stage 1 - Systolic 140-159; diastolic 90-99 mm Hg
Stage 2 - Systolic more than 160; diastolic more than 100 mm Hg
Tests will be ordered to check for causes of high blood pressure and to assess any organ damage from high blood pressure or its treatment. These tests may include the following:
Blood tests including measurement of electrolytes, blood urea, and creatinine levels (to assess kidney involvement)
Lipid profile for levels of various kinds of cholesterol
Special tests for hormones of the adrenal gland or thyroid gland
Urine tests for electrolytes and hormones
A noninvasive, painless eye examination with an ophthalmoscope will look for ocular damage.
Ultrasound of the kidneys, CT scan of the abdomen, or both may be done to assess damage or enlargement of the kidneys and adrenal glands.
Any of the following may be performed to detect damage to the heart or blood vessels:
Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a noninvasive test that detects the electrical activity of the heart and records it on paper. ECG is helpful for quantitating any damage of the heart muscle, such as heart attack, and/or thickening/hypertrophy of the heart wall/muscle, common complications of high blood pressure.
Echocardiogram is an ultrasound examination of the heart taken through the chest. Sound waves take a picture of the heart as it beats and relaxes and then transmits these images to a video monitor. The echo can detect problems with the heart such as enlargement, abnormalities in motion of the heart wall, blood clots, and heart valve abnormalities. It also gives a good measurement of the strength of the heart muscle (ejection fraction). The echo is more accurate than an ECG, but also more expensive.
A plain chest x-ray primarily provides an estimate of the size of the heart, but it is much less specific than echocardiography, which looks inside the heart.
Doppler ultrasound is used to check blood flow through arteries at pulse points in your arms, legs, hands, and feet. This is an accurate way to detect peripheral vascular disease, a common finding in people with high blood pressure. It also can depict the arteries to both kidneys and sometimes depicts narrowings that can lead to high BP in a minority of patients.