Cutting down on salt may help lower your blood pressure. And most Americans need to cut back, because they get more sodium than they should.
The American Heart Association recommends getting less than 1,500 milligrams (mg) of sodium each day. That's less than a teaspoon from all your meals and snacks.
Start with these tips:
Break the habit of automatically reaching for your salt shaker. Table salt is about 40% sodium, according to the American Heart Association. So avoid adding salt to foods...
Under age 60: Systolic less than 140 mm Hg; diastolic less than 90
Age 60 years and older: Systolic less than 150 mm Hg; diastolic less than 90 mm Hg
Under age 60: Systolic greater than 140 mm Hg; diastolic greater than 90 mm Hg
Age 60 years and older: Systolic greater than 150 mm Hg; diastolic greater than 90 mm Hg
Tests may be ordered by your health care provider to check for causes of high blood pressure and to assess any organ damage from high blood pressure or its treatment. These tests may include the following:
Blood tests, including measurement of electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine levels (to assess kidney involvement)
Lipid profile for levels of various kinds of cholesterol
Special tests for hormones of the adrenal gland or thyroid gland
Urine tests for electrolytes and hormones
A noninvasive, painless eye examination with an ophthalmoscope will look for ocular damage.
Ultrasound of the kidneys, CT scan of the abdomen, or both may be done to assess damage or enlargement of the kidneys and adrenal glands.
Any of the following may be performed to detect damage to the heart or blood vessels:
Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a noninvasive test that detects the electrical activity of the heart and records it on paper. ECG is helpful for evaluating for damage of the heart muscle, such as heart attack, and/or thickening/hypertrophy of the heart wall/muscle, common complications of high blood pressure.
Echocardiogram is an ultrasound examination of the heart taken through the chest. Sound waves take a picture of the heart as it beats and relaxes and then transmits these images to a video monitor. The echocardiogram can detect problems with the heart such as enlargement, abnormalities in motion of the heart wall, blood clots, and heart valve abnormalities. It also gives a good measurement of the strength of the heart muscle (ejection fraction). The echocardiogram is more comprehensive than an ECG, but also more expensive.
A plain chest x-ray primarily provides an estimate of the size of the heart, but it is much less specific than echocardiography, which provides more detail.
Doppler ultrasound is used to check blood flow through arteries at pulse points in your arms, legs, hands, and feet. This is an accurate way to detect peripheral vascular disease, a common finding in people with high blood pressure. It also can depict the arteries to both kidneys and sometimes depicts narrowings that can lead to high BP in a minority of patients.