Breathing Problems: Causes, Tests, and Treatments
Can Allergy Tests Determine the Cause of Breathing Problems?
Allergy tests may help your doctor identify the cause of your breathing problems. There are several types of allergy tests your doctor might use. One of them is the prick technique. In this test, the doctor first puts a tiny drop of allergen on your skin. Then the doctor makes a puncture with a needle directly in the drop of allergen extract. If you are allergic to the specific allergen, your body will react to it by turning red at the site. You may also experience itching and swelling at the site of the allergen placement.
If the prick technique is negative, your doctor may inject the allergen extract directly under the skin using a syringe. Other allergy tests include:
- the scratch test, which involves breaking the skin and then dropping the specific allergen into the site
- allergy blood tests (called a RAST or radioallergosorbent test)
- a challenge test, in which the doctor introduces tiny amounts of the suspected allergen by inhaled, oral, or other routes
These tests are used less frequently than the prick technique.
After performing allergy tests, your doctor may know what's triggering your breathing problems. Then the doctor will be able to treat your allergy symptoms more effectively.
How Are Breathing Problems Treated?
Substances that cause breathing problem are known as triggers. Avoidance of triggers is the No. 1 way to control allergies and asthma. As an example, wearing a dust mask when doing housework or yard work may cut down on your exposure to allergy triggers. Avoiding a furry pet, washing bed linens at least once a week, staying indoors during peak pollen times, and changing the filter on your air conditioner frequently may also help prevent serious problems if you have allergies.
Medications are also important in treating breathing problems. Allergy drugs such as antihistamines and decongestants can make it easier to breathe for some people. These medications can be delivered orally or through inhalers.
In addition, inhaled steroids may give relief to some with chronic allergies and sinusitis. These drugs work to reduce inflammation in the airways. Allergy shots are yet another way to reduce sensitivity to allergens and may give relief to some breathing problems.
Asthma is treated with inhaled or oral drugs that help open airways and reduce the primary inflammation in the airways. These asthma medications help ease or even block airway obstruction and excessive mucus production. People with asthma must control inflammation in order to keep the airways open and reduce sensitivity to asthma triggers. Asthma triggers may include:
- Viral infections (cold or flu)
- Pet dander
- Mold spores
- Dust mites
- Irritating pollutants in the air
- Fragrances and fumes
- Food allergies
Even exercise can be an asthma trigger in some people.