The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Stage IV melanoma is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:Any T, any N, M1Treatment Options for Patients With Stage IV and Recurrent MelanomaImmunotherapy.Checkpoint inhibitors.Interleukin-2 (IL-2).Signal transduction inhibitors.BRAF (V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) inhibitors (for patients who test positive for the BRAF V600 mutation).MEK inhibitors.Multikinase inhibitors.KIT inhibitors.Chemotherapy.Palliative local therapy.Clinical trials should be strongly considered because of the rapid advances in the development of novel agents and combinations of agents designed to reverse or interrupt aberrant molecular pathways that support tumor growth.Treatment option overview for patients with stage IV and recurrent melanomaAlthough melanoma that has spread to distant sites is rarely curable, two approaches have demonstrated clinical benefit by prolonging overall survival (OS) in randomized trials:
For more information from the National Cancer Institute about skin cancer, see the following:Skin Cancer Home PageWhat You Need to Know About™ Melanoma and Other Skin CancersSkin Cancer PreventionSkin Cancer ScreeningUnusual Cancers of ChildhoodCryosurgery in Cancer Treatment: Questions and AnswersLasers in Cancer TreatmentDrugs Approved for Basal Cell CarcinomaPhotodynamic Therapy for CancerFor general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version.
Stage III melanoma is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:Any T, N1, M0Any T, N2, M0Any T, N3, M0Standard Treatment Options for Patients With Stage III MelanomaWide local excision of the primary tumor with 1 cm to 3 cm margins, depending on tumor thickness and location.[2,3,4,5,6,7,8] Skin grafting may be necessary to close the resulting defect.High-dose or pegylated interferon alpha-2b as adjuvant treatment for patients who have undergone a complete surgical resection but are considered to be at high risk for relapse.Ipilimumab for patients with unresectable disease.Vemurafenib for patients with unresectable disease who test positive for the BRAF V600 mutation in a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved test.Adjuvant Treatment Options for Patients With Resected Stage III DiseaseProspective, randomized, multicenter treatment trials have demonstrated that high-dose interferon alpha-2b and pegylated interferon do not improve overall
Recurrent melanoma is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the area where it first started or in other parts of the body, such as the lungs or liver.
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Genetics of Skin Cancer
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.This summary was comprehensively reviewed and extensively revised.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the skin cells called melanocytes (cells that color the skin). Melanocytes are found throughout the lower part of the epidermis. They produce melanin,the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun,melanocytes produce more pigment,causing the skin to tan,or darken. The skin is the body’s largest ..
Cancerprevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer,the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully,this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting,scientists look at risk factors and protective factors. Anything that increases your chance of developing cancer is called a ...