Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary
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Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Iris Melanoma
Melanocytic stromal proliferations and nevi of the iris are the most common tumors of the iris, but melanoma is rare.[1,2] Clinical differentiation between an iris nevus and a melanoma might sometimes be difficult and at times may be impossible. Melanomas of the iris are usually small discrete lesions, though they may occasionally be diffuse, infiltrative, or multiple, and they may result in heterochromia, chronic uveitis, or spontaneous hemorrhage into the anterior chamber of the eye (hyphema). Iris melanomas that involve more than 66% of the angle circumference are associated with secondary glaucoma.Routine evaluation of iris melanomas includes gonioscopy, transillumination of the globe, and indirect ophthalmoscopy with 360° of scleral depression. Photographic documentation is essential to document progression in size or growth of the tumor. Anterior segment fluorescein angiography may be helpful to demonstrate the vascularity of the lesion but is not diagnostic.
Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Skin Cancer
Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the skin.The skin is the body's largest organ. It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water, fat, and vitamin D. The skin has several layers, but the two main layers are the epidermis (top or outer layer) and the dermis (lower or inner layer). Skin cancer begins in the epidermis, which is made up of three kinds of cells:Squamous cells: Thin, flat cells that form the top layer of the epidermis. Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma.Basal cells: Round cells under the squamous cells. Cancer that forms in basal cells is called basal cell carcinoma.Melanocytes: Found in the lower part of the epidermis, these cells make melanin, the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes make more pigment and cause the skin to tan, or darken. Cancer that forms in melanocytes
Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Interventions With Inadequate Evidence as to Whether They Reduce Risk of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer
Sunscreen Use and Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation AvoidanceBenefitsThe evidence that interventions designed to reduce exposure to UV radiation by the use of sunscreen, protective clothing, or limitation of sun exposure time decrease the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer is inadequate. A randomized study suggested a possible reduction in incidence of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), but study design and analysis problems complicate interpretation of the results.[1,2]Magnitude of Benefit: Not applicable (N/A) (inadequate evidence).Study Design: One randomized controlled trial (RCT) with tumor incidence as the outcome and one RCT with actinic keratosis as the outcome for SCC; cohort studies for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Other study designs give inconsistent results.Internal Validity: Poor.Consistency: Poor.External Validity: Poor.HarmsThe harms of sunscreen use are poorly quantified but are likely to be small, including allergic reactions to skin creams and lower production of vitamin D
Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (03 / 05 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary
Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary is a disease in which squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck and it is not known where the cancer first formed in the body. Squamous cells are thin,flat cells found in tissues that form the surface of the skin and the lining of body cavities such as the mouth,hollow organs such as the uterus and blood vessels,and the lining ...
Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current
Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Classification and Stage Information for Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma
Tumor SizeUveal melanoma most often assumes a nodular or dome-shaped configuration, but occasionally tumors can be flat or diffuse and involve extensive areas of the uvea with little elevation. Tumor size classifications according to boundary lines used in a Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) are as follows: Small: Range from 1.0 mm to 3.0 mm in apical height and largest basal diameter of 5.0 to 16.0 mm. Medium: Range from 3.1 to 8.0 mm in apical height and a basal diameter of not more than 16.0 mm. Large: Greater than 8.0 mm in apical height or a basal diameter more than 16.0 mm, when the apical height is at least 2.0 mm.Although most ocular melanomas have a raised configuration, about 5% grow in a diffuse pattern that also may have prognostic significance. The tumors have a horizontal, flat-growth pattern, with the thickness measuring approximately 20% or less than the greatest basal dimension. This uncommon variant of uveal
Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the genetics of skin cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Cancer Genetics Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which