Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Melanoma
IntroductionBoth rare, high-penetrance and common, low-penetrance genetic factors for melanoma have been identified, and approximately 5% to 10% of all melanomas arise in multiple-case families. However, a significant fraction of these families do not have detectable mutations in specific susceptibility genes. The frequency with which multiple-case families are ascertained and specific genetic mutations are identified varies significantly between populations and geographic regions. A major population-based study has concluded that the high-penetrance susceptibility gene CDKN2A does not make a significant contribution to the incidence of melanoma.Risk Factors for MelanomaSun exposureSun exposure is the major known environmental factor associated with the development of skin cancer of all types. There are different patterns of sun exposure associated with each major type of skin cancer: basal cell
Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
There are different types of treatment for patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis. Different types of treatment are available for patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Five types of standard treatment are used:Surgery One or more of the following surgical procedures may be used to treat nonmelanoma skin cancer or actinic keratosis:Mohs micrographic surgery: The tumor is cut from the skin in thin layers.
Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Extraocular Extension and Metastatic Intraocular Melanoma
Extrascleral extension confers a poor prognosis. For patients with gross tumor involvement of the orbit, treatment requires orbital exenteration. However, there is no evidence that such radical surgery will prolong life. Most patients with localized or encapsulated extraocular extension are not exenterated. This subject is controversial.[1,2,3,4,5]No effective method of systemic treatment has been identified for patients with metastatic ocular melanoma. Available clinical trials should be considered as an option for these patients.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with extraocular extension melanoma and metastatic intraocular melanoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.References: Shammas HF, Blodi FC: Prognostic factors in choroidal and
Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062750-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Skin Cancer Screening
Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (07 / 22 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary
A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult PrimaryTreatment of untreated metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary may include the following:Radiation therapy.Surgery.Radiation therapy followed by surgery.A clinical trial of chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy.A clinical trial of chemotherapy given at the same time as hyperfractionated radiation therapy.Clinical trials of new treatments.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with untreated metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug.
Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary
If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary
Recurrent metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the neck or other parts of the body.
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current
Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Squamous Cell Carcinoma
IntroductionSquamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common type of skin cancer and accounts for approximately 20% of cutaneous malignancies. Although most cancer registries do not include information on the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer, annual incidence estimates range from 1 million to 3.5 million cases in the United States.[1,2] Mortality is rare from this cancer; however, the morbidity and costs associated with its treatment are considerable.Risk Factors for Squamous Cell CarcinomaSun exposureSun exposure is the major known environmental factor associated with the development of skin cancer of all types; however, different patterns of sun exposure are associated with each major type of skin cancer. (Refer to the Sun exposure section in the Basal Cell Carcinoma section of this summary for more information.) This section focuses on sun exposure and increased risk of cutaneous SCC. Unlike basal cell carcinoma (BCC), SCC is