The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.General Information About MelanomaUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).Cellular and Molecular Classification of MelanomaAdded Carvajal et al. as reference 6.Stage IV and Recurrent MelanomaRevised text of the signal transduction inhibitors treatment option to include BRAF inhibitors.Added text to include a treatment option that states that clinical trials should be considered because of the advances in the development of novel agents and combinations of agents designed to reverse or interrupt aberrant molecular pathways that support tumor growth.Added text to state that studies to date indicate that both BRAF and MEK (mitogen-activated ERK-[extracellular signal-regulated kinase] activating kinase) inhibitors can
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Intraocular (Eye) Melanoma Treatment
PDQ IS A COMPREHENSIVE CANCER DATABASE AVAILABLE ON NCI'S WEB SITE. PDQ is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. Most of the information contained in PDQ is available online at NCI's Web site.
Actinic keratosis is not cancer but is treated because it may develop into cancer. Treatment of actinic keratosis may include the following: Topical chemotherapy. Cryosurgery. Electrodesiccation and curettage. Dermabrasion. Shave excision. Laser surgery. Photodynamic therapy. This summary section refers to specific treatments under study in clinical trials,but it may not mention every ...
Role of ObservationIris melanomas have relatively good outcomes with a 5-year survival rate of more than 95%. They are predominantly of the spindle-cell type and are usually smaller in size than posterior melanomas because of earlier detection. Conservative management is generally advocated whenever possible, but surgical intervention may be justified with unequivocal tumor growth or with extensive disease at initial examination.The management of small choroidal melanomas is controversial, and it is not clear whether treatment of small tumors prevents metastasis. The natural history of small choroidal melanoma is poorly understood. Small, pigmented, choroidal lesions cannot always be differentiated reliably on examination. Growth is a presumed indicator of malignant potential. The likelihood of progression from the time of diagnosis to the time when tumor growth warrants treatment has not been well characterized. Some ophthalmologists advocate
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Skin Cancer Prevention
Primary intraocular melanomas originate from melanocytes in the uveal tract. Four distinct cellular types are recognized in intraocular melanoma (revised Callender classification):Spindle-A cells (spindle-shaped cells with slender nuclei and lacking visible nucleoli). Spindle-B cells (spindle-shaped cells with larger nuclei and distinct nucleoli).Epithelioid cells (larger polygonal cells with one or more prominent nucleoli).Intermediate cells (similar to but smaller than epithelioid cells).Most primary intraocular melanomas contain variable proportions of epithelioid, spindle-A, and spindle-B cells (mixed-cell melanomas). Pure epithelioid-cell primary melanomas are infrequent (approximately 3% of cases). In the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, mixed-cell type melanomas predominated (86% of cases).References: Klintworth GK, Scroggs MW: The eye and ocular adnexa. In: Sternberg SS, ed.: Diagnostic Surgical Pathology. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999,
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.