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    Melanoma/Skin Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Melanoma Skin Cancer

    1. Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Ciliary Body Melanoma

      Melanoma involving the ciliary body is a rare tumor that carries a poor prognosis. In some cases, diagnosis may be difficult because of similarity to other eye diseases. The differential diagnosis of ciliary body melanoma should be considered in cases of unilateral pigmentary glaucoma and chronic uveitis.[1]Ultrasound biomicroscopy can be used to evaluate tumor shape, thickness, margins, reflectivity, and local invasion.[2,3] Patients with tumors greater than 7 mm in thickness are at increased risk for metastatic disease and melanoma-related death compared with patients with thinner tumors.[4]Standard treatment options:There are several options for management of ciliary body melanoma. All of them are reported from case series.[Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] The choice of therapy, however, depends on many factors.Plaque radiation therapy: Local control rates are high, but treatment is associated with a high incidence of secondary cataract.[4,5]External-beam, charged-particle radiation

    2. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (02 / 27 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Description of the EvidenceAdded text to state that the current evidence indicates that sunscreen application as practiced in the general population shows no clear association with reduced risk of melanocytic nevi or melanoma.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

    3. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 08 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.

    4. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Interventions With Inadequate Evidence as to Whether They Reduce Risk of Melanoma

      Sunscreen Use and Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation AvoidanceBenefitsThere is inadequate evidence to determine whether the avoidance of sunburns or the use of sunscreen alters the incidence of cutaneous melanoma.Magnitude of Benefit: Unknown.Study Design: Primarily cohort or case-control studies. A post hoc analysis of one randomized controlled trial of regular sunscreen use versus use at the personal discretion of the control group suggested a possible decrease in melanoma in the regular sunscreen group that emerged years after the trial period ended. However, the numbers were extremely small, and the confidence intervals were consequently very large.[1]Internal Validity: Poor.Consistency: Poor.External Validity: Not applicable (N/A).HarmsThe harms of sunscreen use are poorly quantified but are likely to be small, including allergic reactions to skin creams and lower production of vitamin D by the skin with less sun exposure.References: Thomas VD, Aasi SZ, Wilson LD, et al.: Cancer of the

    5. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Actinic Keratosis

      Actinic keratosis is not cancer but is treated because it may develop into cancer. Treatment of actinic keratosis may include the following:Topical chemotherapy.Topical biologic therapy with imiquimod.Cryosurgery.Electrodesiccation and curettage.Dermabrasion.Shave excision.Photodynamic therapy.Laser surgery.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with actinic keratosis. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

    6. Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma

      Intraocular melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the eye.Intraocular melanoma begins in the middle of three layers of the wall of the eye. The outer layer includes the white sclera (the white of the eye) and the clear cornea at the front of the eye. The inner layer has a lining of nerve tissue, called the retina, which senses light and sends images along the optic nerve to the brain.The middle layer, where intraocular melanoma forms, is called the uvea or uveal tract, and has three main parts:IrisThe iris is the colored area at the front of the eye (the eye color). It can be seen through the clear cornea. The pupil is in the center of the iris and it changes size to let more or less light into the eye. Intraocular melanoma of the iris is usually a small tumor that grows slowly and rarely spreads to other parts of the body.Ciliary bodyThe ciliary body is a ring of tissue with muscle fibers that change the size of the pupil and the shape of the

    7. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (03 / 05 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.

    8. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062713-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Melanoma Treatment

    9. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Intraocular Melanoma

      The prognosis for any patient with recurring or relapsing disease is poor, regardless of cell type or stage. The question and selection of further treatment depends on many factors, including the extent of the lesion, age and health of the patient, prior treatment, and site of recurrence, as well as individual patient considerations. Surgical resection of metastases diagnosed subsequent to initial management of ocular melanoma in single-center, case series of highly selected patients has been reported. The extent to which the occasional favorable outcomes are the result of strong selection factors is not clear, so this approach cannot be considered standard.[1]Clinical trials are appropriate, and eligible patients should be advised to consider participation in them whenever possible. Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent intraocular melanoma. The list of clinical trials can be

    10. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma

      A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Iris MelanomaTreatment of iris melanoma may include the following:Watchful waiting.Surgery (resection or enucleation).Plaque radiation therapy, for tumors that cannot be removed by surgery.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with iris melanoma. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Ciliary Body MelanomaTreatment of tumors in the ciliary body and choroid may include the following:Plaque radiation therapy.Charged-particle external-beam radiation therapy.Surgery (resection or

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