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    Melanoma/Skin Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Melanoma Skin Cancer

    1. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Melanoma

      Agreement between pathologists in the histologic diagnosis of melanomas and benign pigmented lesions has been studied and found to be considerably variable. One such study found that there was discordance on the diagnosis of melanoma versus benign lesions in 37 of 140 cases examined by a panel of experienced dermatopathologists.[1] For the histologic classification of cutaneous melanoma, the highest concordance was attained for Breslow thickness and presence of ulceration, while the agreement was poor for other histologic features such as Clark level of invasion, presence of regression, and lymphocytic infiltration. In another study, 38% of cases examined by a panel of expert pathologists had two or more discordant interpretations. These studies convincingly show that distinguishing between benign pigmented lesions and early melanoma can be difficult, and even experienced dermatopathologists can have differing opinions. To reduce the

    2. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

    3. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Skin Cancer

      Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the skin.The skin is the body's largest organ. It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water, fat, and vitamin D. The skin has several layers, but the two main layers are the epidermis (top or outer layer) and the dermis (lower or inner layer). Skin cancer begins in the epidermis, which is made up of three kinds of cells:Squamous cells: Thin, flat cells that form the top layer of the epidermis. Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma.Basal cells: Round cells under the squamous cells. Cancer that forms in basal cells is called basal cell carcinoma.Melanocytes: Found in the lower part of the epidermis, these cells make melanin, the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes make more pigment and cause the skin to tan, or darken. Cancer that forms in melanocytes

    4. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of melanoma. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which

    5. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stages of Melanoma

      After melanoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the skin or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out whether cancer has spread within the skin or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. Talk with your doctor about what the stage of your cancer is. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.Lymph node mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy: Procedures in which a radioactive substance and/or blue dye is injected near the tumor. The substance or dye flows through lymph ducts to the

    6. Melanoma, Malignant

      Malignant Melanoma is a common skin cancer that arises from the melanin cells within the upper layer of the skin (epidermis) or from similar cells that may be found in moles (nevi). This type of skin cancer may send down roots into deeper layers of the skin. Some of these microscopic roots may spread (metastasize) causing new tumor growths in vital organs of the body.. ...

    7. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Unresectable Stage III, Stage IV, and Recurrent Melanoma Treatment

      Stage IV melanoma is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:[1]Any T, any N, M1Treatment Options for Patients With Stage IV and Recurrent MelanomaImmunotherapy.Checkpoint inhibitors.Interleukin-2 (IL-2).Signal transduction inhibitors.BRAF (V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) inhibitors (for patients who test positive for the BRAF V600 mutation).MEK inhibitors.Multikinase inhibitors.KIT inhibitors.Chemotherapy.Palliative local therapy.Clinical trials should be strongly considered because of the rapid advances in the development of novel agents and combinations of agents designed to reverse or interrupt aberrant molecular pathways that support tumor growth.Treatment option overview for patients with stage IV and recurrent melanomaAlthough melanoma that has spread to distant sites is rarely curable, two approaches have demonstrated clinical benefit by prolonging overall survival (OS) in randomized trials:

    8. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

      If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

    9. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Skin Cancer

      Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the skin. The skin is the body’s largest organ. It protects against heat,sunlight,injury,and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water,fat,and vitamin D. The skin has several layers,but the two main layers are the epidermis (upper or outer layer) and the dermis (lower or inner ...

    10. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Skin Cancer

      After nonmelanoma skin cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the skin or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the skin or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of

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