Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence
BackgroundIncidence and mortalityThere are three main types of skin cancer:Basal cell carcinoma.Squamous cell carcinoma (together with basal cell carcinoma, this is referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancer).Melanoma.Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common forms of skin cancer but have substantially better prognoses than the less common, generally more aggressive melanoma.Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in the United States. Its incidence appears to be increasing in some  but not all  areas of the United States. Overall U.S. incidence rates have likely been increasing for a number of years. At least some of this increase may be attributable to increasing skin cancer awareness and resulting increasing investigation and biopsy of skin lesions. A precise estimate of the total number and incidence rate of nonmelanoma skin cancer is not possible, because reporting to cancer registries is not required. However, based on
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Cellular and Molecular Classification of Melanoma
Following is a list of clinicopathologic cellular subtypes of malignant melanoma. These should be considered descriptive terms of historic interest only as they do not have independent prognostic or therapeutic significance. Superficial spreading.Nodular.Lentigo maligna.Acral lentiginous (palmar/plantar and subungual).Miscellaneous unusual types: Mucosal lentiginous (oral and genital).Desmoplastic.Verrucous. Identification of activating mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway has led to the definition of molecular subtypes of melanoma and provided potential drug targets.BRAF (V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) gene, first reported in 2002, are the most frequent mutation in cutaneous melanoma. Approximately 40% to 60% of malignant melanomas harbor a single nucleotide transversion. The majority have a mutation that results in a substitution from valine to glutamic acid at position 600 BRAF (V600E); less frequent mutations include valine 600 to lysine or
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma
Intraocular melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the eye.Intraocular melanoma begins in the middle of three layers of the wall of the eye. The outer layer includes the white sclera (the white of the eye) and the clear cornea at the front of the eye. The inner layer has a lining of nerve tissue, called the retina, which senses light and sends images along the optic nerve to the brain.The middle layer, where intraocular melanoma forms, is called the uvea or uveal tract, and has three main parts:IrisThe iris is the colored area at the front of the eye (the eye color). It can be seen through the clear cornea. The pupil is in the center of the iris and it changes size to let more or less light into the eye. Intraocular melanoma of the iris is usually a small tumor that grows slowly and rarely spreads to other parts of the body.Ciliary bodyThe ciliary body is a ring of tissue with muscle fibers that change the size of the pupil and the shape of the
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary
Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary is a disease in which squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck and it is not known where the cancer first formed in the body. Squamous cells are thin,flat cells found in tissues that form the surface of the skin and the lining of body cavities such as the mouth,hollow organs such as the uterus and blood vessels,and the lining ...
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Interventions With Inadequate Evidence as to Whether They Reduce Risk of Melanoma
Sunscreen Use and Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation AvoidanceBenefitsThere is inadequate evidence to determine whether the avoidance of sunburns or the use of sunscreen alters the incidence of cutaneous melanoma.Magnitude of Benefit: Unknown.Study Design: Primarily cohort or case-control studies. A post hoc analysis of one randomized controlled trial of regular sunscreen use versus use at the personal discretion of the control group suggested a possible decrease in melanoma in the regular sunscreen group that emerged years after the trial period ended. However, the numbers were extremely small, and the confidence intervals were consequently very large.Internal Validity: Poor.Consistency: Poor.External Validity: Not applicable (N/A).HarmsThe harms of sunscreen use are poorly quantified but are likely to be small, including allergic reactions to skin creams and lower production of vitamin D by the skin with less sun exposure.References: Thomas VD, Aasi SZ, Wilson LD, et al.: Cancer of the
Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - What is prevention?
Cancerprevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer,the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully,this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting,scientists look at risk factors and protective factors. Anything that increases your chance of developing cancer is called a ...
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000258015-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Intraocular (Eye) Melanoma Treatment
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stage 0 Melanoma Treatment
Stage 0 melanoma is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:Tis, N0, M0Patients with stage 0 disease may be treated by excision with minimal, but microscopically free, margins. Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 melanoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.References: Melanoma of the skin. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 325-44.
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Ciliary Body Melanoma
Melanoma involving the ciliary body is a rare tumor that carries a poor prognosis. In some cases, diagnosis may be difficult because of similarity to other eye diseases. The differential diagnosis of ciliary body melanoma should be considered in cases of unilateral pigmentary glaucoma and chronic uveitis.Ultrasound biomicroscopy can be used to evaluate tumor shape, thickness, margins, reflectivity, and local invasion.[2,3] Patients with tumors greater than 7 mm in thickness are at increased risk for metastatic disease and melanoma-related death compared with patients with thinner tumors.Standard treatment options:There are several options for management of ciliary body melanoma. All of them are reported from case series.[Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] The choice of therapy, however, depends on many factors.Plaque radiation therapy: Local control rates are high, but treatment is associated with a high incidence of secondary cataract.[4,5]External-beam, charged-particle radiation