Large doses of medicines, such as cyclophosphamide
(Cytoxan) and methotrexate for cancer
The medicines dutasteride (Avodart) and finasteride (Proscar),
which are used to prevent further enlargement of the
prostate gland in men who have BPH, or the type of finasteride (Propecia) that is used for male-pattern baldness.
What To Think About
When combined with a
digital rectal exam, the prostate-specific antigen
(PSA) test may increase the chance of finding prostate cancer. To learn more, see the topic
Digital Rectal Examination (DRE).
level within the normal ranges does not mean that prostate cancer is not
present. Some men who have prostate cancer have normal PSA levels.
Experts disagree about the type of testing that is appropriate if
the PSA level is high. The decision may depend on:
Results of your digital rectal
Results of any PSA tests you have had in the past. If your
PSA level gets higher in a short amount of time, follow-up testing may be
Your age and health.
The costs and risks
of more tests and treatments.
Other prostate tests are being evaluated to
determine how well they tell the difference between prostate cancer and benign
The prostate-specific antigen density
(PSAD) test compares the PSA value to the size of the prostate gland. The size
of the prostate is measured using transrectal ultrasound
The PSA velocity test is a measure of how rapidly PSA
levels increase over time. PSA levels increase more rapidly in men with
prostate cancer and more slowly in men with prostate enlargement (benign
A complexed prostate-specific antigen (cPSA) test may help show
if a prostate biopsy should be done. This test measures the amount of several forms of PSA that are attached to proteins found in the blood.