Many people with multiple sclerosis experience spasticity, or muscle stiffness and spasms. It usually affects the muscles of the legs and arms, and may interfere with the ability to move those muscles freely.
Spasticity can occur either as a sustained stiffness caused by increased muscle tone or as spasms that come and go, especially at night. It can feel like a muscle tightening or it can cause severe pain. Spasticity can also produce feelings of pain or tightness in and around joints and can cause low back pain. The intensity may vary depending on your position, posture, and state of relaxation.
Spasticity is the result of an imbalance in the electrical signals coming from the brain and spinal cord, often caused by damage to these areas by multiple sclerosis. This imbalance causes hyperactive muscle stretch reflexes, which result in involuntary contractions of the muscle and increased muscle tension.
What Triggers Spasticity Due to Multiple Sclerosis?
For someone who has multiple sclerosis, spasticity may be aggravated by extremes of temperature, humidity, or infections. It can even be triggered by tight clothing.
How Is Spasticity Diagnosed?
To diagnose spasticity your doctor will first evaluate your medical history, including what medications you have taken and whether there is a history of neurological or muscular disorders in your family. To confirm the diagnosis, several tests can be performed to evaluate your arm and leg movements, muscular activity, passive and active range of motion, and ability to perform self-care activities.
How Is Spasticity Treated if I Have Multiple Sclerosis?
If you suffer from multiple sclerosis, spasticity can be treated using physical therapy, medications, surgery, or any combination of these treatments. Your doctors will consider the severity of your condition, your overall health, and the following factors when prescribing an appropriate treatment plan:
Is the spasticity affecting function or independence?
Is the spasticity painful?
What treatment options have already been tried, and how did they work?
What are the costs of the possible treatments?
What are the limitations and side effects of the treatment?