The disease is recognized by various symptoms in different organs of the body that may or may not appear at the same time. It may come on quickly and severely or more slowly, with sudden remissions or recurrences.
The pain of arthritis makes it tough for many people to get a good night’s sleep. Worse yet, tossing and turning at night can actually increase the perception of pain.
“There’s a reciprocal relationship between pain and poor sleep. The poorer people sleep, the more pain they tend to be in,” says Kevin Fontaine, PhD, assistant professor of rheumatology at Johns Hopkins University. “If people with arthritis can improve the quality of their sleep, they can usually reduce their day-to-day pain.”
Reactive arthritis primarily affects sexually active males between the ages of 20 and 40. Those with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) are at a particularly high risk.
What Causes Reactive Arthritis?
The cause of reactive arthritis is still unknown, but research suggests the disease is caused, in part, by a genetic predisposition: Approximately 75% of those with the condition have a positive blood test for the genetic marker HLA-B27.
In sexually active males, most cases of reactive arthritis follow infection with Chlamydia trachomatis or Ureaplasma urealyticum, bothsexually transmitted diseases. In other cases, people develop the symptoms following an intestinal infection with shigella, salmonella, yersinia, or campylobacter bacteria.
Besides using condoms during sexual activity, there is no known preventative measure for reactive arthritis.
What Are the Symptoms of Reactive Arthritis?
The first symptoms of reactive arthritis are painful urination and a discharge from the penis if there is inflammation of the urethra. Diarrhea may occur if the intestines are affected. This is then followed by arthritis four to 28 days later that usually affects the fingers, toes, ankles, hips, and knee joints. Typically, only one or a few of these joints may be affected at one time. Other symptoms include:
Pain from inflammation of the ligaments and tendons at the sites of their insertion into the bone (enthesitis)
How Is Reactive Arthritis Diagnosed?
Diagnosis of reactive arthritis can be complicated by the fact that symptoms often occur several weeks apart. A doctor may diagnose reactive arthritis when the patient's arthritis occurs together with or shortly following inflammation of the eye and the urinary tract and lasts a month or longer.