National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
What Research Is Being Done on Osteoarthritis? continued...
Animal models of osteoarthritis
Animal models help researchers learn many things about osteoarthritis, such as what happens to cartilage, how treatment strategies might work, and what might prevent the disease. Animal models also help scientists study osteoarthritis in very early stages before it causes detectable joint damage. In a study that concluded in 2004, a group of researchers led by David Kingsley, Ph.D., of Stanford University, and supported by NIAMS, used mice to study the role of genes in the body’s production of cartilage.
Scientists are searching for ways to detect osteoarthritis at earlier stages so they can treat it sooner. Abnormalities in the blood, joint fluid, or urine of people with osteoarthritis may provide clues. Other scientists use new technologies to analyze the differences between the cartilage from different joints. For example, many people have osteoarthritis in the knees or hips, but few have it in the ankles. Can ankle cartilage be different? Does it age differently? Answering these questions will help us understand the disease better. Many studies now involve the development of a rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure that doctors use to quickly and noninvasively evaluate joint cartilage. The procedure could potentially be used to diagnose the disease. More importantly, it may be an effective method to study disease progression.
Osteoarthritis in all its various forms appears to have a strong genetic connection. Gene mutations may be a factor in predisposing individuals to develop osteoarthritis. For example, scientists have identified a mutation (a gene defect) affecting collagen, an important part of cartilage, in patients with an inherited kind of osteoarthritis that starts at an early age. The mutation weakens collagen protein, which may break or tear more easily under stress. Scientists are looking for other gene mutations in osteoarthritis. Researchers have also found that the daughters of women who have knee osteoarthritis have a significant increase in cartilage breakdown, thus making them more susceptible to disease. In the future, a test to determine who carries the genetic defect (or defects) could help people reduce their risk for osteoarthritis by making lifestyle adjustments.