If you look at an adult foot from the inside, you'll usually notice an upward curve in the middle. This is called an arch. Tendons -- tight bands that attach at the heel and foot bones -- form the arch. Several tendons in your foot and lower leg work together to form the arches in your foot.
When the tendons all pull the proper amount, then your foot forms a moderate, normal arch. When tendons do not pull together properly, there is little or no arch. This is called flat foot or fallen arch.
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You can easily test yourself to see if you might have fallen arches or flat feet. Follow these three steps:
Get your feet wet.
Stand on a flat surface where your footprint will show, such as on a concrete walkway.
Step away and look at the prints. If you see complete imprints of the bottom of your feet on the surface, then you're likely to have flat feet.
Many young children have flat feet, a condition referred to as flexible flat feet. When the child stands, the feet look flat. But when the child rises to his or her toes, a slight arch appears. In most cases, as children grow older, the arches develop.
Causes of Flat Feet and Fallen Arches
Flat feet in adults can arise from a variety of causes. Here are the most common:
An abnormality that is present from birth
Stretched or torn tendons
Damage or inflammation of the posterior tibial tendon (PTT), which connects from your lower leg, along your ankle, to the middle of the arch
Broken or dislocated bones
Some health conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis
Other factors that can increase your risk include:
Symptoms of Flat Feet and Fallen Arches
Many people have flat feet -- and notice no problems and require no treatment. But others may experience the following symptoms:
Feet tire easily
Painful or achy feet, especially in the areas of the arches and heels
The inside bottom of your feet become swollen
Foot movement, such as standing on your toes, is difficult
Back and leg pain
If you notice any of these symptoms, it's time for a trip to the doctor.
Diagnosing Flat Feet and Fallen Arches
Your doctor examines your feet to determine two things:
Whether you have flat feet
An exam may include these steps:
Checking your health history for evidence of illnesses or injuries that could be linked to flat feet or fallen arches
Looking at the soles of your shoes for unusual wear patterns
Observing the feet and legs as you stand and do simple movements, such as raising up on your toes
Testing the strength of muscles and tendons, including other tendons in the feet and legs, such as the Achilles tendon or the posterior tibial tendon