The term cauliflower ear refers to a deformity of the ear caused by blunt trauma or other injury, such as what may occur during a boxing or wrestling match. Left untreated, the injury leads to a blockage that prevents blood flow and damages tissue. This results in a bumpy or lumpy appearance on part of the ear, similar to a cauliflower. Early treatment can help prevent permanent deformity.
Fortunately, the types of injuries that cause cauliflower ear are often preventable by wearing the right type of protective head gear.
Causes of Cauliflower Ear
The most common cause of cauliflower ear is a hit to the ear -- or repeated hits to the ear -- that leads to hematomas, or small collections of blood that clot and block the flow of blood and nutrients. These can also occur when skin is pulled away from cartilage, the semi-rigid tissue that gives the ear its shape.
Usually, cauliflower ear is related to sports injuries, but not always. Any trauma to the ear can cause it. Cauliflower ear can even be the result of an infection in the ear lobe.
When blood flow is blocked, the affected cartilage may die and, without the supportive tissue, fold in on itself. Scar tissue may form, contributing to a swollen and deformed look. Over time, the effects may become more prominent, and they may be permanent. The good news is that cauliflower ear can usually be prevented, even after such an injury occurs.
Risk Factors for Cauliflower Ear
Cauliflower ear occurs most frequently in people who participate in close-contact sports, such as wrestling or boxing. In wrestling, for instance, trauma can result from opponents' heads rubbing or hitting one another during matches or from contact with the wrestling mat. Cauliflower ear is also common among rugby players and people who practice martial arts. People who participate in these activities are at higher risk than others. Protective head gear has long been commonplace in these sports.
But these injuries can also occur in non-athletes. They may be the result of accidents or physical altercations. They also can be a complication of "high" piercings in the upper area of the ear, through the cartilage, if the piercing becomes infected.