blister on heel
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What Are Blisters?

They're bubbles that pop up when fluid collects in pockets under the top layer of your skin. They can be filled with pus, blood, or the clear, watery part of your blood called serum. Most are shaped like circles. Depending on the cause, your blister could itch or hurt a lot or a little. They can appear as a single bubble or in clusters.

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hiker tending to blister
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Friction

Friction blisters, named for what causes them, are one of the most common kinds. Think back. Have you ever worn a new pair of hiking boots before you broke them in? Or raked the yard without a pair of garden gloves on your hands? Those are the kinds of things that could cause a friction blister on your heel, toe, thumb, or palm.

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sunburn blisters
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Cold and Heat

Go without gloves in winter and you could get blisters from frostbite. Stay out in the summer sun too long and you might get sunburn. The same thing can happen if you handle frozen goods or touch the stove burner. Both cold and heat are described as “blistering” for good reason: Extreme temperatures can hurt your skin. Blisters are a sign of a type of second-degree burn called partial thickness.

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poison ivy rash
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Contact Dermatitis

Rub up against a pesky plant like poison ivy, and you might end up with blisters of another sort. They’re often a symptom of contact dermatitis, which happens when you touch something you’re allergic to. It doesn’t have to be poisonous, though. Some people react to soap, perfume, detergent, fabric, jewelry, latex gloves, or things used to make tools, toys, or other everyday objects.

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bed bug bites
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Bug Bites

Insects can take the blame for some itchy blisters. Scabies are tiny mites that drill into your skin, sometimes leaving curved lines of blisters in their tracks. They often attack the hands, feet, wrists, and under the arms. Flea and bedbug bites can cause little blisters, too. The brown recluse spider has an extra-nasty bite that blisters before bursting to form a painful open sore. If that describes your blister, go to the doctor right away.

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shingles and chicken pox
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Chickenpox & Shingles

Some viruses can cause blisters. The herpes virus is a common culprit. It’s present in chickenpox, a contagious illness that starts with red bumps that become blisters and then scab over. If you’ve had chickenpox, you also can get shingles, which targets nerves and causes a painful rash with blisters. The CDC says people 60 and older should get a one-time vaccination to prevent shingles. It also recommends two doses of chickenpox vaccine for anyone who hasn’t had the disease.

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mouth with cold sore
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Herpes Simplex

Fever blisters on your lips, mouth, or genitals are a sign of the herpes simplex virus. The fluid in these sores carries and spreads the virus through sex, or by kissing or sharing utensils. Many people don’t know they have herpes because symptoms are usually mild. If you have fever blisters or you think you've been exposed to herpes, talk to your doctor. There’s no cure, but certain drugs can prevent or shorten outbreaks.

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hand foot mouth disease blisters
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Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

This disease is named after the blisters it causes on these body parts. The infection mostly hits kids younger than 10. The virus spreads through contact with mucus, saliva, feces, or blisters of someone who’s already sick. The infection starts out with a mild fever, runny nose, and sore throat. But the blisters are the big clue that leads to a diagnosis.

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peeling blister
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Keep It Clean and Dry

Some blisters get better on their own. Your skin absorbs the fluid, and the blister flattens and peels off. Until that happens, you can use a donut-shaped piece of moleskin padding or tape to help keep it from breaking open.

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woman with bandaged foot
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Don’t Pop if You Don’t Have To

Resist the urge to pop a blister unless it’s so large -- bigger than a nickel -- or painful that you can’t get around. If that’s the case, your doctor might decide to puncture it with a sterile needle to let the fluid drain out. Once it’s popped, whether your doctor does it or it breaks on its own, gently wash the area with soap and water and apply antibiotic ointment. Cover it with a bandage to keep it clean during the day, but take the bandage off at night to let it dry

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woman with dermatologist
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When to See Your Doctor

Go to the doctor if you have a fever, chills, or other flu-like symptoms at the same time you have blisters. You could have a virus or an infection. Other symptoms of infection can include: pain, swelling, redness or warmth, red streaks leading away from your blister, or pus coming from it. Blisters around your eyes or on your genitals are also cause for concern.

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Sources | Medically Reviewed on 02/28/2017 Reviewed by Neha Pathak, MD on February 28, 2017

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SOURCES:

Johns Hopkins Medicine: “Glossary - Pediatrics.”

Johns Hopkins Medicine: “Health Library: Blisters.”

American Academy of Pediatrics. “Healthy Children: Blisters.”

University of New Mexico Hospitals: “Burn Classification.”

Johns Hopkins Medicine: “Health Library: Poison Ivy.”

Johns Hopkins Medicine: “Health Library: Contact Dermatitis.”

Nemours: “Infections: Scabies.”

Virtua Hospital System: “Kids Health: A to Z: Insect Bites/Stings, Non-Venomous

CDC: Workplace Safety & Health Topics: Venomous Spiders.”

Johns Hopkins Medicine: “Health Library: Chickenpox (Varicella).”

American Academy of Dermatology: “Shingles: Signs and symptoms.”

American Academy of Family Physicians: “Herpes: Treatment”

American Academy of Pediatrics. “Healthy Children: Blisters.”

Johns Hopkins Medicine: “Health Library: Poison Ivy.”

Johns Hopkins Medicine: “Health Library: Contact Dermatitis.”

CDC: “Vaccines and Immunizations: Shingles Vaccination: What You Need to Know.”

CDC: “Vaccines and Immunizations: Chickenpox Vaccination: What Everyone Should Know.”

American Academy of Dermatology: “Herpes simplex: Signs and symptoms.”

American Academy of Dermatology: “Herpes simplex: Who gets and causes.”

CDC: “Genital Herpes Treatment.”

New York State Department of Health: “Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (Coxsackie viral infection).”

Seattle Children’s: "Should Your Child See a Doctor: Blisters.”

NYU Langone Medical Center Department of Pediatrics: “Blisters.”

American Academy of Dermatology: “Shingles: Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.”

Reviewed by Neha Pathak, MD on February 28, 2017

This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information.

THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.