Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Pelvic organ prolapse, a type of pelvic floor disorder, can affect many women. In fact, about one-third of all women are affected by prolapse or similar conditions over their lifetime.

What Is a Pelvic Floor Disorder?

The "pelvic floor" is a group of muscles that form a kind of hammock across your pelvic opening. Normally, these muscles and the tissues surrounding them keep the pelvic organs in place. These organs include your bladder, uterus, vagina, small bowel, and rectum.

Sometimes, these muscles and tissue develop problems. Some women develop pelvic floor disorders following childbirth. And as women age, pelvic organ prolapse and other pelvic floor disorders become more common.

When pelvic floor disorders develop, one or more of the pelvic organs may stop working properly. Conditions associated with pelvic floor disorders include:

What Is Pelvic Organ Prolapse?

"Prolapse" refers to a descending or drooping of organs. Pelvic organ prolapse refers to the prolapse or drooping of any of the pelvic floor organs, including:

These organs are said to prolapse if they descend into or outside of the vaginal canal or anus. You may hear them referred to in these ways:

  • Cystocele: A prolapse of the bladder into the vagina, the most common condition
  • Urethrocele: A prolapse of the urethra (the tube that carries urine)
  • Uterine prolapse
  • Vaginal vault prolapse: prolapse of the vagina
  • Enterocele: Small bowel prolapse
  • Rectocele: Rectum prolapse

What Causes Pelvic Organ Prolapse?

Anything that puts increased pressure in the abdomen can lead to pelvic organ prolapse. Common causes include:

Genetics may also play a role in pelvic organ prolapse. Connective tissues may be weaker in some women, perhaps placing them more at risk.

What Are the Symptoms of Pelvic Organ Prolapse?

Some women notice nothing at all, but others report these symptoms with pelvic organ prolapse:

  • A feeling of pressure or fullness in the pelvic area
  • A backache low in the back
  • Painful intercourse
  • A feeling that something is falling out of the vagina
  • Urinary problems such as leaking of urine or a chronic urge to urinate
  • Constipation
  • Spotting or bleeding from the vagina

Symptoms depend somewhat on which organ is drooping. If the bladder prolapses, urine leakage may occur. If it's the rectum, constipation and uncomfortable intercourse often occur. A backache as well as uncomfortable intercourse often accompanies small intestine prolapse. Uterine prolapse is also accompanied by backache and uncomfortable intercourse.

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How Is Pelvic Organ Prolapse Diagnosed?

Your doctor may discover pelvic organ prolapse during a routine pelvic exam, such as the one you get when you go for your Pap smear. Your doctor may order a variety of tests:

  • Urinary tract X-ray (intravenous pyelography)
  • CT scan of the pelvis
  • Ultrasound of the pelvis
  • MRI scan of the pelvis

How Is Pelvic Organ Prolapse Treated?

Treatment of pelvic organ prolapse depends on how severe the symptoms are. Treatment can include a variety of therapies, including:

  • Behavioral treatments, such as doing Kegel exercises designed to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles
  • Mechanical treatments, such as inserting a small plastic device called a pessary into the vagina to provide support for the drooping organs
  • Surgical treatment, either to repair the affected tissue or organ or to remove the organ (such as removal of the uterus by hysterectomy)

Can Pelvic Organ Prolapse Be Prevented?

Many risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse are out of your control. These include:

  • Family history
  • Advancing age
  • A difficult vaginal delivery
  • Having had a hysterectomy

But you can reduce the likelihood you will have problems. Try these steps:

  • Do Kegel exercises daily to maintain good muscle strength in your pelvic area
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Avoid constipation
  • Do not smoke, as smoking can affect tissues, and a chronic cough often seen in smokers boosts the risk of problems

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Traci C. Johnson, MD on February 03, 2017

Sources

SOURCES:
WebMD Health Guide: "Pelvic Organ Prolapse."
Magee-Womens Research Institute Center for Research in Women's Bladder & Pelvic Health, Pittsburgh, Pa: "Pelvic Organ Prolapse."
National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Child Health & Human Development: "Research on Gynecological Disorders." 
National Association for Continence: "Pelvic Organ Prolapse."

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