"All natural" -- it's on the labels of a growing number of foods, cosmetics, cleaning products, and over-the-counter remedies. This is, in part, what makes herbal medicine so popular. But does natural always mean safe?
Herbal medicine is the use of plants as medicine. Typically taken by mouth or applied to the skin, medicinal herbs can come in several forms, such as ointments, oils, capsules, tablets, and teas.
Citicoline is a natural chemical in the body. It seems to play a role in brain health. It's available as a supplement in the U.S. In other parts of the world, citicoline is sold as a drug. It's used to try and help sharpen thinking in people with blood flow problems in the brain.
Though many people may use them as medicine, herbal supplements are not regulated by the FDA like prescription and over-the-counter drugs are. For this reason, some potentially dangerous herbs may be available in stores, online, and even in local coffee shops. You take them at your own risk. Before taking any herb, be sure to research it and talk to your health care providers -- doctors, pharmacists, and anyone else who's involved in your medical care.
"Some people think herbal supplements really work but that they are harmless," but if it acts like a drug in the body, then it can also have a negative effect, says Adriane Fugh-Berman, MD, an expert on medicinal herbs and dietary supplements and a professor at Georgetown University School of Medicine.
"Most herbs we use in the U.S. are pretty benign," Fugh-Berman says, "but some are dangerous and others are if not taken correctly."
Anything that works like a drug is going to have some risks, says Cydney McQueen, PharmD, a professor at the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Pharmacy.
Here are examples of herbs that carry risks you may not know about. This is not a complete list of every potentially risky herb or other supplement; it simply shows that some very risky substances are available to anyone over the counter. So again, be sure to talk to your health care providers before taking any herbs.
St. John's Wort
St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) can ease mild to moderate depression, says Andrew Weil, MD, who is the founder and director of the Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine at the University of Arizona. But there is not enough evidence that it helps with major depression.