Teens Spearhead U.S. Abortion-Rate Drop
Despite Overall Decline, Abortions Up for Poor Women
Perhaps the worst news from the AGI study is that abortion rates went up for the poorest women. Women whose household income is less than twice the federal poverty level -- $35,300 for a family of four -- have abortions 4.4 times as often as the wealthiest women in the study. These poorer women represent less than a third of all American women of reproductive age, yet they account for 57% of all abortions.
Carol J. Hogue, PhD, MPH, former director of reproductive health at the CDC, now is a professor of maternal and child health at Atlanta's Emory University. She notes that Medicaid now covers fewer poor women. Moreover, federal funds for Title X -- which pays for contraceptive services not covered by Medicaid -- have not increased since 1994.
"Poor women have suffered a tremendous blow to their ability to control their fertility," Hogue tells WebMD. "This study points out that social policies -- level funding of Title X, decline in the number of poor women eligible for Medicaid, and the push to employment for people on welfare -- increase abortions for poor women. They find themselves pregnant and choose to abort because have no means of taking care of a child. They have to work."
Randall K. O'Bannon, PhD, director of education and research for the National Right to Life Committee, partially agrees with Hogue.
"During the last administration we raised the point that welfare reform should not increase pressure on a young woman to have an abortion," O'Bannon tells WebMD. "If in that whole process there are people who feel their options are few -- or that there is no option -- that kind of thing can happen."
O'Bannon, however, does not think that the decline in the U.S. abortion rate is due to more widespread use of contraceptives.
"Among women who become pregnant, a smaller percentage is aborting their babies. That is not impacted by abstinence or contraception," O'Bannon says. "People now have a better sense of what the unborn child is like. ... The campaign to ban partial-birth abortion has opened a lot of people's eyes. When people began to find out this is not some side issue about rights, but that another human being is involved, I think that began to change a lot of people's minds. There also has been a tremendous outgrowth of pregnancy care centers, better known as pregnancy crisis centers. They have been out there letting women know there are alternatives to abortion. Women can get financial support, they can get things to help them understand adoption, and they can get help to work with their parents and the father of the child. Now, women don't feel forced to have an abortion. Now, women understand there are other life-affirming options for them."