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Erica Hartmann, assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Northwestern University.
California Childcare Health Program (UCSF): “Sanitize Safely and Effectively: Bleach and Alternatives in Child Care Programs.”
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety: “Working with Household (Chlorine) Bleach.”
Connecticut Department of Public Health: “The Nurse’s Office: Cleaning the Safe and Healthy Way.”
CDC: “Coronavirus Disease 2019, Guidance for Cleaning and Disinfecting: Public Spaces, Workplaces, Businesses, Schools, and Homes; Detailed Disinfection Guidance: Interim Recommendations for U.S. Households with Suspected or Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19),” “Natural Disasters and Severe Weather: Cleaning with Bleach” “Food Safety: Fruit and Vegetable Safety.”
Michigan Department of Community Health: “Bleach Fact Sheet.”
Washington State Department of Health: “Dangers of Mixing Bleach with Cleaners,” “Disinfecting and Sanitizing with Bleach Guidelines for Mixing Bleach Solutions for Child Care and Similar Environments.”
Benzoni, T., Hatcher, J.D. Bleach Toxicity, StatPearls, 2020.
U.S. Fire Administration (FEMA): “The dangers of mixing household cleaners.”
National Research Council (US) Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 8, National Academies Press (US), 2010.
North Dakota State University: “Chlorine Bleach Safety.”
Respiratory Medicine: “Women using bleach for home cleaning are at increased risk of non-allergic asthma.”
National Capital Poison Center: “Laundry Products: How to Protect Kids from Unintentional Poisonings.”
PubChem (NIH): “Sodium hypochlorite.”
University of Kentucky: “The Chemistry of Stain Removals.”
The State University of New York: “Quick & Easy Stain Removal Tips.”
University of Illinois Extension: “Stain Solutions.”
New Jersey Department of Health: “Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet.”
College of Family and Consumer Sciences (UGA): “Remove Stains from Iron, Rust.”
Cleveland Clinic: “Sanitize Your Mobile Phone With These Helpful Tips.”
Michigan State University: “COVID-19 — Disinfecting with Bleach.”
Northeastern University Environmental Health & Safety: “Using Bleach as a disinfectant.”
Duke University: “Duke OESO Guidelines for Safe Use of Bleach.”
State of Colorado: “Keep Your Drains Draining.”
California Department of Pesticide Regulation: “What’s the problem with bleach?”
FDA: “Shopping for Food During the COVID-19 Pandemic-Information for Consumers.”
Reviewed by Carol DerSarkissian on June 30, 2020
This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information.
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