Idiopathic scoliosis, the most common type, does not have a known cause. Children who have this type of scoliosis usually first develop symptoms in the preteen years. Most cases of scoliosis are mild, involving small curves in the spine that do not get worse. Small curves usually don't cause pain or other problems. Usually a doctor examines the child every 4 to 6 months to watch for any changes.
In moderate or severe cases of scoliosis, the curves continue to get worse. During periods of growth, such as during the teenage growth spurt, the curves may get worse. Mild to moderate curves often stop progressing when the skeleton stops growing. Larger curves may get worse throughout adulthood unless they are treated.
Only about 1 out of 10 children who are diagnosed with scoliosis need treatment (either bracing or surgery).1
Things that may point to the potential increase in a spinal curve include:
- The age of the child and the development stage, or maturity, of his or her skeleton when scoliosis is diagnosed. The less mature the skeleton is when scoliosis starts, the greater the chance that scoliosis will get worse. Skeletal age, as determined by the Risser sign, is also used to find out the risk that the curve will get worse.
- The size of the curve. The larger the curve, the greater the risk that it will get worse.
- The location and shape of the curve. Curves in the upper back are more likely to get worse than curves in the lower back.
Girls are more likely than boys to have larger curves and more severe scoliosis.
As scoliosis gets worse, the bones of the spine move toward the inside of the curve. If it happens in the upper part of the spine, the ribs may crowd together on one side and spread apart on the other side. The curve may force the spinal bones closer together. The spinal bones on the outer edge of the curve may also get thick.
Although it is uncommon, babies can be born with scoliosis (congenital) or can develop it during the first 3 years of their lives (infantile scoliosis). Scoliosis that is present at birth or that develops in infants may be worse in the long run than scoliosis that develops later in life. This is because the more growing the skeleton has to do, the worse the curve may get. But in some cases congenital curves do not get worse. And some curves that are present during infancy get better on their own without treatment.