Multiple Myeloma Signs, Symptoms, and Complications

Multiple myeloma is a rare type of blood cancer. The chances of getting it are 1 in 132. It’s more likely to affect men, but women get it, too. As with any cancer, the earlier it's found, the more likely you are to beat it.

While it doesn't always cause symptoms you’d notice, especially early on, it eventually can lead to a few warning signs.

CRAB

This term stands for signs doctors look for when diagnosing for multiple myeloma. Over time, the disease can cause:

  • C = High calcium levels in your blood, or hypercalcemia
  • R= Renal, or kidney, problems
  • A = Anemia, a low red blood cell count
  • B = Bone pain or lesions. This includes:

Each can cause different symptoms and complications as time goes on.

High Calcium Levels

As bone breaks down, calcium goes into your bloodstream. It's usually flushed out in your urine, but if you have too much -- a condition called hypercalcemia -- your kidneys can have trouble keeping up. You might notice:

  • Heavy thirst
  • Peeing often
  • Dehydration
  • Kidney problems and even kidney failure
  • Severe constipation,
  • Abdominal (belly) pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weakness
  • Feeling drowsy
  • Confusion

Renal, or Kidney, Problems

It takes time for myeloma protein to damage your kidneys. You won’t have symptoms early on, but your doctor might spot signs of kidney damage on a blood test or a urine test. As your kidneys begin to fail, they can’t get rid of extra salt, fluid, and body waste. When this happens you could notice:

  • Weakness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Itchiness
  • Swollen legs

Low Blood Counts

Myeloma affects many cells that make up your blood.

Anemia: Myeloma cells will eventually crowd out your red blood cells. You may feel:

  • Weak
  • Dizzy
  • Short of breath
  • Like you can’t exercise

Leukopenia: You don’t have enough white blood cells. You may be more likely to get infections like pneumonia.

Thrombocytopenia: Your platelet counts fall. This can lead to serious bleeding even from minor scrapes, cuts, or bruises.

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Bone Damage

Multiple myeloma can destroy areas of bone. This can lead to osteoporosis, which makes your bones brittle. You could have:

  • Bone pain in your back, rib cage, hips, or other areas
  • Bone weakness
  • Bone fractures

Nervous System Problems

Myeloma can lead to a number of problems with your nerves.

Spinal compression: If myeloma affects the bones in your spine, they can press down on your spinal cord. You might feel:

  • Sudden, severe back pain
  • Numbness or weakness, often in your legs
  • Muscle weakness, often in your legs

If you feel something like this, get medical help right away.

Nerve damageMyeloma proteins can be toxic to your nerves. This can lead to a condition called peripheral neuropathy that causes a pins-and-needles feeling, often in your legs and feet.

Hyperviscosity: A large amount of myeloma protein might make your blood get thicker. This can slow blood flow to your brain and lead to:

Get medical help right away if you have any of these symptoms.

See your doctor as soon as possible if you think you may have multiple myeloma, but keep in mind that other health problems can cause some of these same issues.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD on September 16, 2018

Sources

SOURCES:

American Cancer Society: "Lifetime Risk of Developing or Dying from Cancer," "Signs and Symptoms of Cancer," "Signs and Symptoms of Multiple Myeloma," "What Are the Risk Factors for Multiple Myeloma?" “Key Statistics About Multiple Myeloma,” “Signs and Symptoms of Multiple Myeloma.”

American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO): "Multiple Myeloma: Risk Factors."

Mayo Clinic: "Multiple Myeloma."

MD Anderson Cancer Center: "Multiple Myeloma Diagnosis," "Multiple Myeloma Facts," "Multiple Myeloma Symptoms."

Medscape: "Multiple Myeloma Staging.”

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