Stem Cell Transplant for Multiple Myeloma

Medically Reviewed by Sabrina Felson, MD on September 07, 2022
4 min read

A stem cell transplant replaces unhealthy blood cells with healthy ones. It can be a strong weapon in your fight against multiple myeloma.

It isn't a cure, but compared to chemotherapy alone, a stem cell transplant appears to improve survival. 

When you’re fighting multiple myeloma, you need high-dose cancer treatment. But strong treatment also wipes out your bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are made.

A transplant can reboot your marrow so it makes your blood healthy again.

It works well for a lot of people. But transplants aren’t for everyone. If you and your doctors think one is right for you, you should learn your options and what to expect before, during, and after treatment.

That depends on a few things, including:

  • Your stage of the disease
  • How fast it’s growing
  • Which cancer-fighting treatments you’ve already had
  • Your age

Your general health comes into play, too. There are no hard and fast rules.

1. Autologous transplants use your own healthy stem cells. About half of people with multiple myeloma can have this type of transplant. It’s considered standard care.

It can keep myeloma at bay for a while, even years. But eventually, cancer comes back.

2. Tandem are back-to-back autologous transplants. You get a round of cancer treatment followed by a transplant. You repeat the process a few months later.

Studies show that this may be more effective than just one transplant for some people. But there could be more side effects with this method than with an autologous transplant.

3. Allogeneic transplants use stem cells from another person. The donor’s tissue type needs to be a close match to yours to avoid serious side effects. Usually, a brother or sister is a first choice. Unrelated but well-matched donors can be used, too.

Allogeneic transplants are much riskier than autologous ones. But they may fight cancer better. This is because donor cells can kill myeloma cells that survived cancer treatment.

4. Mini transplants are allogeneic but depend more on the donor cells to zero in on and kill the cancer cells. As a result, you’d get lower doses of chemo and radiation beforehand. If you are older or have other health problems, this may be a good choice for you.

5. Syngeneic transplants are allogeneic transplants that come from an identical twin. If you’re lucky enough to have one, this may be your best option because the transplanted cells will be the best match they can be.

1. Stem cells are collected. In the past, they were taken directly from the marrow in an operation called a bone marrow harvest. Today, most stem cells are collected from the bloodstream.

The donor (that can be you or another person) will get a drug that makes cells grow faster and helps them leave the marrow. When enough are in the blood, they’re removed from the donor.

Blood is taken through a tube put into a large vein. It goes through a machine that takes out the stem cells and returns the rest of the blood. Usually, enough are collected for at least two transplants.

The cells are frozen until you’re ready for them.

2. Cancer treatment begins. A doctor will give you high-dose chemo and maybe radiation to kill as many cancer cells as possible. You may get bad mouth sores, diarrhea, or other side effects. Your doctors can give you medicine to help you feel better.

3. Stem cells are transplanted. You’ll get them through an IV. Side effects are usually mild.

The cells will travel to your bone marrow and eventually start to make new blood cells.

Your medical team will take extra steps to protect you from infection because your immune system will take a hit. You may feel very tired because of low blood counts.

You may need:

  • Transfusions of red blood cells to fight anemia
  • Platelets to stop bleeding
  • Antibiotics or other drugs to stop infections. Your blood counts should start to rise within a few weeks. You may hear this called engraftment.


If you got an allogeneic transplant, doctors will look for signs that donor cells are attacking your body. This is called graft-versus-host disease, and it can happen right away or months later. It can be serious, but it’s usually treatable.

What’s the recovery time? It should take about 2-6 weeks for your blood counts to start making a steady return toward normal. You can go home after a couple of weeks, when your counts are high enough to fight infection and prevent bleeding. Or your doctor may tell you to visit the transplant center daily for checkups.

It can take 6 months or longer to fully recover from a transplant. So even after you’re home, you’re still on the mend and you’ll be followed closely.


Deciding whether to get a stem cell transplant isn’t easy. You and your doctor may choose to use other treatments first and do a transplant if you get worse.

Ask your doctor if it makes sense to collect your stem cells early while they’re still in good shape. You might need them in the future.