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American Cancer Society: "What Is Bone Metastasis?" "Bone Metastasis:
What Are the Risk Factors for Bone Metastases?" "Bone Metastasis: How
Are Bone Metastases Diagnosed?" "Bone Metastasis: Systemic
Treatments," "Bone Metastasis: Local Treatments," "Bone Metastasis:
Pain Medications for Bone Metastases," "Bone Metastasis: What
Happens After Treatment of Bone Metastases?"
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: "Metastatic Bone Disease."
National Cancer Institute: "Metastatic Cancer," "Surgery Helps Relieve
Spinal Cord Compression Caused by Metastatic Cancer," "Radiation
Therapy for Cancer."
Medline Plus: "Spinal Tumor."
American Academy of Family Physicians: "Bisphosphonates: Safety and
Efficacy in the Treatment and Prevention of Osteoporosis."
PubMed Health: "Osteoporosis."
National Osteoporosis Foundation: "Concerns About Bisphosphonates."
Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD on June 20, 2019
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