ct scan revealing cancer in eye
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How Does It Happen?

When healthy cells in your eye change -- or mutate -- and grow too quickly in a disorganized way, they can form a mass of tissue called a tumor. If these problem cells start in your eye, it’s called intraocular cancer, or primary eye cancer. If they spread to your eye from another part of your body, it’s called secondary eye cancer.

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vision with eye floaters
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The most common sign of eye cancer is a change in your vision. You may not be able to see well, or you might see flashes of light or spots (floaters). You also may notice a new dark spot in one eye or a change in its size or shape. But eye cancer doesn’t always cause symptoms early on, and these things can happen for many other reasons.

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uveal cancer
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Uveal Melanoma

This is the most common kind of primary eye cancer. It happens when cells form a tumor in a part of your eye called the uvea. It has three parts: the colored part of your eye called the iris, the ciliary body (it makes fluid and helps you focus), and the choroid layer that supplies blood to your eye. This layer is where the cells usually start to change and become cancerous.

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child with retinoblastoma
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This is the most common type of eye cancer in children, but it's diagnosed in only 200 to 300 kids in the U.S. each year. It’s usually found before age 5. It starts while a baby is in the womb, in the very back part of the eye called the retina. As the baby grows, cells called retinoblasts grow out of control and form a tumor. Sometimes it’s first noticed in a picture, when one of the pupils looks different from the other.

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lymphatic system illustration
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Intraocular Lymphoma

Your lymphatic system is made of lymph nodes -- glands that help you get rid of waste and germs. They’re part of your immune system, and you have them all over your body, including your eyes. This rare kind of eye cancer starts in those lymph nodes. It can be hard to diagnose because the symptoms aren't the same for everyone.

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conjunctival melanoma close up
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Conjunctival Melanoma

The lining outside your eyeball and inside your eyelid is called the conjunctiva. This rare kind of cancer happens when a tumor grows in that lining -- it can look like dark spots on your eye. If it isn’t found and treated quickly, it can spread to other parts of your body through your lymphatic system.

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lacrimal gland cancer
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Lacrimal Gland Cancer

This rare type of cancer starts when a tumor forms in the glands that make tears. They’re called lacrimal glands, and you have them under the upper eye lid of each eye. These tumors tend to happen more often in people who are in their 30s.

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eyelid carcinoma close up
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Eyelid Cancer

This type of skin cancer shows up on or inside your eyelid. The most common form of it -- called basal cell carcinoma -- happens on your lower lid and is caused by spending too much time in the sun. People who have fair or pale skin are more likely to acquire it. Eyelid cancer can usually be treated easily and effectively if it’s found early.

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secondary eye cancer diptych
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Secondary Eye Cancer

In most cases, cancer doesn’t start in the eye -- it spreads there from somewhere else in your body. That’s called secondary cancer, and it happens most often with breast cancer in women and lung cancer in men. It also can go to your eyes from your skin, kidney, colon, and thyroid, among other places.

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eye exam female patient
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Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and check your vision and the way your eyes move. They also may use a light and a magnifying lens to look for signs of a tumor in your eye. If they think you might have eye cancer, they may want to use imaging scans like ultrasound or an MRI to get a closer look. And they may recommend a biopsy -- they’ll take a tiny amount of tissue from the growth to look at under a microscope and see if it’s cancer.

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eye surgery close up
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Treatment: Surgery

If the tumor is small and not growing fast -- and isn’t causing many problems for you -- your doctor may just watch it closely. If it gets larger than 10 millimeters around or 3 millimeters tall, they may recommend surgery to take out part or all of the eye, depending on how much of it is affected by the tumor.

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proton radiation therapy eye
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Treatment: Radiation


Your doctor may use high beams of energy (usually a type of X-ray) to kill any cancer cells that may still be there - with or without surgery. But this can damage healthy cells, too, and that can make your eyes dry, your eyelashes fall out, or cloud your vision.

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laser therapy on eye
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Treatment: Laser Therapy

The most common kind of laser treatment, called transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT), focuses a narrow, intense beam of infrared light on your eye to shrink a small tumor. It’s used to treat eye melanoma, because those cells absorb the light energy from the laser. It doesn’t work with intraocular lymphoma. Laser therapy usually causes fewer side effects than surgery or radiation.

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Sources | Medically Reviewed on 07/31/2019 Reviewed by Whitney Seltman, OD on July 31, 2019


1) PDSN / Medical Images

2) Acdx / Wikipedia

3) Chris Barry / Medical Images

4) National Cancer Institute / Getty Images

5) SomkiatFakmee / Thinkstock

6) Clinical Photography, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK / Science Source

7) BOB TAPPER / Medical Images

8) Ralph Jr / Getty Images

9) Sebastian Kaulitzki / Thinkstock, Sebastian Kaulitzki / Thinkstock

10) Manchan / Getty Images

11) nakornkhai / Thinkstock

12) James King-Holmes / Science Source

13) WILL & DENI MCINTYRE / Getty Images


American Cancer Society: “Laser Therapy for Eye Cancer,” “What Is Retinoblastoma?”

American Society Of Clinical Oncology (Cancer.net): “Lacrimal Tumor Guide,” “Eyelid Cancer Guide,” “Eye Cancer Guide.”

FDA: “Medical Lasers.”

NIH: “Retinoblastoma in Adults: a Case Report and Literature Review,” “Management of conjunctival malignant melanoma: a review and update,” “Lung Cancer and Eye Metastases.”

Review of Ophthalmology: “Diagnosis & Treatment of Intraocular Lymphoma.”

Reviewed by Whitney Seltman, OD on July 31, 2019

This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information.

THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.